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CHAPTER 7 NUTRIENTS INVOLVED IN FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE

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FLUID
A substance composed of molecules that move past one another freely. Fluids are characterized by their ability to conform to the shape of whatever container holds them.
INTRACELLULAR FLUID
The fluid held at any given time within the walls of the body's cells.
EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
The fluid outside of the body's cells, either in the body's tissues or as the liquid portion of blood, called plasma.
ELECTROLYTE
A substance that disassociates in solution into positively and negatively charged ions and is thus capable of carrying an electrical current.
ION
Any electrically charged particle, either positively or negatively charged.
SOLVENT
A substance that is capable of mixing with and breaking apart a variety of compounds. Water is an excellent solvent.
BLOOD VOLUME
The amount of fluid in blood.
OSMOSIS
The movement of water (or any solvent) through a semipermeable membrane from an area where solutes are less concentrated to areas where they are highly concentrated.
THIRST MECHANISM
A cluster of nerve cells in the hypothalamus that stimulate our conscious desire to drink fluids in response to an increase in the concentration of salt in our blood or a decrease in blood pressure and blood volume.
INSENSIBLE WATER LOSS
The loss of water not noticeable by a person, such as through evaporation from the skin and exhalation from the lungs during breathing.
DIURETIC
A substance that increases fluid loss via the urine. Common diuretics include alcohol, some prescription medications, and many over-the-counter-weight-loss pills.
HYPERNATREMIA
A condition in which blood sodium levels are dangerously high.
HYPONATREMIA
A condition in which blood sodium levels are dangerously low.
HYPERKALEMIA
A condition in which blood potassium levels are dangerously high.
HYPOKALEMIA
A condition in which blood potassium levels are dangerously low.
PHYTIC ACID
The form of phosphorus stored in plants.
DEHYDRATION
Depletion of body fluid that results when fluid excretion exceeds fluid intake.
HEAT STROKE
A potentially fatal response to high temperature characterized by failure of the body's heat-regulating mechanisms. Symptoms include rapid pulse, reduced sweating, hot, dry skin, high temperature, headache, weakness, and sudden loss of consciousness, Commonly called sunstroke or heatstroke.
OVERHYDRATION
Dilution of body fluid. It results when water intake or retention is excessive.
HYPERTENSION
A chronic condition characterized by above-average blood pressure readings, specifically, systolic blood pressure over 140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure over 90 mm Hg.
SEIZURES
Uncontrollable muscle spasms caused by increased nervous system excitability that can result from electrolyte imbalances.
MUSCLE CRAMPS
Involuntary, spasmodic, and painful muscle contractions that last for many seconds or even minutes; electrolyte imbalances are often the cause of muscle cramps.
2 TYPES OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
1.) Tissue Fluid ( sometimes called interstitial fluid ).
2.) Intravascular Fluid.
CRITICAL FUNCTIONS THAT FLUID SERVES
1.) Fluids dissolve and transport substances.
2.) Fluids account for blood volume.
3.) Fluids help maintain body temperature.
4.) Fluids protect and lubricate our tissues.
BODY FUNCTIONS THAT ELECTROLYTES SUPPORT.
1.) Electrolytes help regulate fluid balance.
2.) Electrolytes enable our nerves to respond to stimuli.
3.) Electrolytes signal our muscles to contract.
THE 4 MAJOR FLUID MINERALS
1.) Sodium
2.) Potassium
3.) Chloride
4.) Phosphorus
DISORDERS RELATED TO FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCES
1.) Dehydration
2.) Heat Stroke
3.) Water Intoxication
4.) Hypertension