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Terms in this set (209)
provide covering (skin tissue)
produce secretions (glandular tissue)
-exists in sheets and does not have its own blood supply.
-can regenerate easily if well nourished.
classified 2 ways:
number of cell layers
cell shape (squamous, cuboidal, columnar)
found throughout the body.
connect different structures of the body.
-has its own blood supply (except, connective tissue ligaments do not.)
(bone, cartilage, adipose (fat), blood vessel)
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
Skeletal: supports voluntary movements
Smooth: under involuntary control. found in walls of hollow organs (intestines, blood vessels, bladder,and uterus)
Cardiac: involuntary. found only in the heart
provides the structure for the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
nerves made of neurons that send electrical impulses throughout the body. (myelin-help protect nervous tissue.)
aka. cardiovascular system
function: supports the circulation and distribution of various substances throughout the body
consists of all organs from the mouth to the anus.
esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
-small intestine: absorption 80% of nutrients (duodenum, jejenum, ileum)
-Large intestine resorbs water through osmosis along with ions from feces. -- additional absorption occurs in colon.
-liver: produces bile break down fats.
-pancrease: delivers enzymes to the small intestine that aid in digestion.
serves to control body functions. Glands in the endocrine system secrete hormones that travel through the blood to organs throughout the body.
glands: pineal, pituitary, thalamus, hypothalamus, thyroid, thymus, and adrenal regulate growth and metabolism.
-pancreas, testis, and ovaries have endocrine functions.
consists of skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails.
-protects internal tissues from injury, waterproofs the body, and regulates temperature.
-serves as barrier to pathogens.
relationship w/ other systems:
-respiratory and digestive: provide oxygen and nutrients to the skin to maintain health.
-oxygen and nutrients for the skin travel through blood vessels in the cardiovascular system.
-lymphatic: picks up excess fluid from the sin to avoid swelling.
-skeletal: provides shape and support
-endocrine: hormones system regulate hair growht and hydration
-the skin serves to protect internal organs including reproductive system.
consists of lymph nodes, lymph vessels that carry lymph (clear fluid rich in antibodies), the spleen, the thymus and tonsils (made out of lymphoid tissue).
supports the immune system by housing and transporting white blood cells to and from lymph nodes.
-also returns fluid that has leaked from the cardiovascular system back into the vessels.
consists of skeletal muscles, tendons that connect muscles to bones, ligaments that attach bones together to form joints.
-NOT included cardiac and smooth muscles
consists of brain, spinal cord, nerves and serves as the body's control system.
relationship w/other systems:
- Endocrine: releases hormones that regulate the activity of neurons
-Urinary: helps dispose metabolic wastes and maintains the correct electrolyte balance for proper nerve function
consists of testes, penis, ovaries, vagina, breasts.
-has hormones that influence masculine or feminine body characteristics.
keeps body's cells supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide as it is released from the cells.
consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
-Alveoli: walls of alveoli that oxygen and carbon dioxide move in and out of the lungs via small blood vessels called arterioles.
relationship w/ other systems:
-lymphatic: transports sex hormones
-muscular: involved in childbirth
respiratory: increases during pregnancy
provides support and protection for the body and its organs, supplies a framework used with muscles=creates movement.
consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments, and joints.
-Also used for storage for minerals-calcium and phosphorus.
relationship w/other systems:
-endocrine: releases hormones that regulate growth
-digestive: provides nutrients for the mineralization of bones.
-urinary: activates Vitamin D which is necessary for calcium absorption into bone.
helps maintain the water and electrolyte (sodium, chloride, and potassium) balance within the body.
-regulates acid-base balance of blood
-removes all nitrogen-containing wates from the body.
nitrogen containing wastes are by products of the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids.
relationship w/ other systems:
-endocrine: helps regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes in the kidneys.
- digestive (the liver)- synthesizes urea that must be excreted by the kidneys.
body is facing forward, feet are parallel to each other and arms are at he sides with palms facing forward)
toward the upper end of the body
lower end of the body
front of the body
back of the body
middle of the body
outer sides of the body
between medial and lateral
away from the origin of the body part or point of attachment.
at the body surface
below the body surface
cut made along a longitudinal plane dividing body into right and left parts
sagittal section made down the median of the body
cut made along a horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower region
divides the body into front and back regions
dorsal body cavity
contains the cranial cavity and spinal column
ventral body cavity
contains all the structures within the chest and abdomen
functions of the body
adaptation, circulation, elimination, locomotion, nutrition, oxygenation, regulation, self-duplication
receive interpret, respond to internal and external stimuli via nervous system
transport oxygen and other nutrients to tissues via cardiovascular system
remove metabolic wastes from the body via renal system
allow voluntary and involuntary movement of the body via musculoskeletal and neurological systems
take in and break down nutrients to be used for metabolism via digestive system
take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide via respiratory system
hormonal control of body functions via endocrine system
production of offspring via reproductive system
Respiratory system air exchange
primary function of lungs= breathing in oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide
1) air is inhaled through nose into the TRACHEA
2) passing through BRONCHIAL TUBES
3) within bronchial tubes are CILIA (keep airway clear by removing unwanted matter from the lungs)
4) After leaving bronchial tubes, air travels into ALVEOLI (tiny air sacs surrounded by capillaries) permit exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide to occur
5) Oxygen is transported via red blood cells into blood stream
6) Diaphragm (abdominal muscle contracts, pulls air into the lungs during INSPIRATION (act of taking in oxygenated air)
7) Diaphragm relaxes carbon dioxide is forced out of the body via EXPIRATION
autonomic nervous sytem
controls automatic body functions (heartbeat and digestion) include SYMPATHETIC NERVES and PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES
are active when person is excited or scared "fight or flight"
active when a person is eating or at rest "rest and digest"
receive stimuli from the internal and external environment and bring those stimuli to the neurons
specialized cells that make up the nervous system and transmit messages
nervous system functions
-provide sensory, motor, and integrative functions within the body.
they all react to stimuli and maintain homeostasis within the body.
when the body senses pain, it may automatically withdraw from it.
Digestive system (Alimentary canal)
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
Digestive system (Accessory structures)
teeth, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
rhythmic contractions that propel food towards the colon and anus.
increases stomach absorption of Vitamn B12.
chemicals that break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into nutrients that can be absorbed through the wall of the intestine into the blood stream.
releases chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
FIRST section of the small intestine releases 2 hormones (secretin and cholecystokinin (CKK))
secretin- travels to pancreas to trigger release of bicarbonate= neutralizes stomach acid entering duodenum
CCK-released from duodenum and initiates bile release from gall bladder while decreasing motility and acid production by the stomach.
tissues, cells, and organs that fight off illness and disease is composed of both innate (NONSPECIFIC) and adaptive (SPECIFIC) defenses that are designed to protect the body from pathogens (foreign invaders)
Innate immune functions
occur in the same way every time regardless of the type or number of pathogens present.
-include first line of defense, physical and chemical barriers (skin, mucous membranes, and digestive enzyme)
-2nd line of defense (fever, inflammation, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, interferons, chemotaxis, and release of cytokines.
mild to moderate fevers- benefit by killing pathogens that grow better at lower body temps.
4 signs of inflammation
redness, heat, swelling, and pain
Natural Killer Cells (NK)
produce perforins (pore-forming proteins) that target cancer and virus cells.
- cause cells to lyse/rupture
body's response to viral infection and prevent replication of the virus 7-10 days. activate macrophages and NK cells.
method by which leukocytes respond to damaged body tissues.
process of white blood cells squeezing through capillary slits in response to cytokines. followed by CAMs (cellular adhesion molecules) guiding white blood cells to the site of damage/infection.
Adaptive Immune functions
3rd line of defense.
Include Humoral, anti-body mediate, and cell-mediated responses.
antibodies- produced for specific invading antigen.
Vaccines: stimulates an actual infection by a pathogen, stimulating the body to produce antibodies for future protection.
individual does not produce his or her antibodies, receives them directly from ANOTHER source (mother t infant through breast milk.)
lymphocyte that triggers the action of other lymphocytes.
-Macrophage capture nonself-cell> T- helper cell binds to it and secretes cytokine> signals Cytotoxic T Cell> Cytotoxic T cell responds destroys nonself cell.
types of lymphocytes or small leukocytes followed by T helper cells, produce antibodies.
chemical messengers that are released by damaged tissue
average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years between ages of 15-44.
-fertility rates in LESS developed countries are much higher
crude birth rate
number of births per 1,000 people per year
crude death rate
number of deaths per 1,000 people per year
act of an individual moving into a region or country to live (migrate into)
act of an individual moving out of one region or country to live (migrate out of)
8 levels of TAXONOMY
first to study and write about species adaptation.
wrote "On the Origin of Species" after spending time in the Galapagos island.
first to coin "natural selection"
occurs when some individuals of a species are better able to survive in their environment and reproduce than others. aka "survival of the fittest"
ex) resistance to antibiotics amongst certain bacterial strains.
through mutations, some species are able to survive and adapt to the environment in which they live.
*If variation/mutation causes positive result that makes it easier for organism to survive environmental pressures= adapation.
permanent changes in the DNA that affect the way a gene functions
stretches of DNA on a chromosome that provide information for an organism's characteristics, responsible for heredity.
to store and transmit hereditary information. contains chain of nucleotides.
consists of a pentose, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
type of sugar
molecule found in DNA and RNA that encodes the genetic information in cells
BOTH DNA and RNA:
adenine always pairs with thymine
guanine always pairs with cytosine
have two rings
have one ring
process of protein production from messenger RNA
cells copy the instructions in the DNA into RNA and send the messenger RNA to the ribosomes
PROKARYOTIC CELL (bacterial)
outside rigid layer that helps separate the inside and outside of the cell, and an inside plasma membrane that is semipermeable, allowing certain substances in and out of the cell as needed.
inner layer rich protein fluid with gel-like consistency that houses organelles (tiny organs)
is the condensed DNA of the cell. It contains genes and genetic blue prints for the formation of proteins that make up the machinery of the cell.
small circular portions of DNA not associate with the nucleoid. contain small number of genes compared to the DNA in the nucleoid.
RNA is copied from the DNA to take instructions from the nucleoid to the rest of the cell.
Chemically similar to DNA.
manufacture proteins for the cell from the RNA messages.
They are very small bodies that free-floating within the cytoplasm. Proteins do most of the work in th cell.
more complex than prokaryotic cells, but also larger.
-some live as single cells, but may exists as part of a larger complex of cells containing multicellular organism.
tubular transport network within the cell.
*responsible for moving proteins from one part of the cell to another and moving proteins outside the cell (secretion)
smooth and rough
studded with ribosomes, gritty appearance.
important for metabolic processes in the cell.
involved in packaging and transport of proteins in the cell, including protein secretion.
-refines proteins that have been manufactured by the ribosomes.
-sorts and prepares them for transport.
small membrane bounded sacs within the cytoplasm.
1) vacuole- basic storage unit of the cell that can hold various compounds
2) lysosome- contains digestive enzymes that are capable of disposing cellular debris and work cellular parts
3) peroxisome- functions to rid the body of toxic components, such as hydrogen peroxide (LIVER contains peroxisomes because toxic substances build up there)
power houses of the cell bc locations where the cellular fuel ATP is produced.
has CRISTAE- enzymes that help convert sugar into ATP to power the cell.
cellular tracks that during mitosis, form the mitotic spindle.
spindle helps organize and segregate the chromosomes during cell division.
microtubule organizing centers that help to form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
chloroplasts (similar to mitochondria)
larger vacuoles (contain water) than eukaryotic cells.
solid cell wall that acts as barrier to the outside and gives structure to the cell.
contains sections called genes-contain information that specifies the production of protein.
A chain of amino acids.
play vital part in the body.
chromosomes, genes, dna, and rna are substances that preside over protein production.
DNA to RNA to Proteins.
produces a more specialized cell for a less-specialized cell.
differentiation determines what cell type each will become.
process of differentiation occurs with cell in the developing embryo but can also occur in adults.
cells can divide and remain undifferentiated.
totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent
an animal or a plant in the early stages of development after fertilization.
process of cell duplication in which two daughter cells receive exactly the same nuclear material as the original cell.
s phase ( synthesis)- DNA double helix unwinds with the help of enzymes.** Breaks the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs and separates the bases from their complementary partners, but does not remove the bases from the backbone of their half of the double helix.
-the exposed bases pair with the new comp. bases that are synthesized into a new comp. strand with the help of enzyme DNA POLYMERASE.
g1- the dna double helix unwinds to expose the bases. RNA bases pair with the complementary partners on the DNA to form messenger RNA strand. -- Once entire gene is copied into mRNA> the DNA double helix closes and the mRNA exits the nucleus taking the info it contains to the ribosomes.
g2- continued protein synthesis and cell growth in preparation for cell division.
cells that form a new organism via sexual reproduction.
a gamete from one individual combines into DNA with the DNA of a gamete from another individual.
combined gametes= 2 gametes (would produce too much DNA if gametes did not reduce their DNA content)
process by which gametes reduce their DNA content.
occurs only in GAMETES or FERTILIZED EGGS depending on species.
results in extra genetic variability.
individual chromosomes duplicate during S phase and condense into chromosomes that have both copies of individual chromosomes attached at one spot to form sister chromatids.
during metaphase, chromosomes with their sister chromatids line up on a plate down the middle of the nucleus.
spindle fibers form between the centrosomes and attach to the chromosomes on the metaphase plate.
separating the two sets of chromosome into different cells. then mitosis is complete.
Stages of Mitosis
1) Prophase: the spindle fibers form and the centrioles moves to the opposite sides of the cell. The nuclear membrane disappears.
2) metaphase: the chromosomes align midway along the spindle fibers.
3) anaphase: the chromosome begin to separate from their daughters. Cytokinesis begins.
4) Telophase: identical sets of chromosomes are at opposites ends of the cell. Spindle fibers disappear, nuclear membranes reappear, and cytokinesis completes.
Stages of Meiosis
* Used for sexual reproduction.
1) Prophase: Homologous chromosomes condense and link in the process- forming tetrads. This allows crossing over or recombination to occur.
2) Metaphase: homologous chromosomes move to the metaphase plate
3) anaphase 1: homologous chromosomes separate, but the sister chromatids stay together.
4) Telophase 1: Cytokinesis has occurred and 2 haploid daughter cells are the result.
5) prophase II: a brief stage in which spindle fibers begin to reappear and centrioles move to the opposite poles.
6) metaphase II: sister chromatids align at a new metaphase plate
7) anaphase II: sister chromatids separate again
8) telophase II: four haploid cells result after cytokinesis
cells that contain two sets of chromosomes.
cells that contain a single set of chromosomes.
the process carried out by green plants, green algae, and certain bacteria in which the energy from the sunlight is trapped by the green pigment of chlorophyll and used for synthesis of glucose.
6C02 + 6H2O+ Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
carbon dioxide+ water+sunlight-> glucose + oxygen
an organism that is able to produce its own food.
most use photosynthesis.*
uses on of the end products of photosynthesis, glucose, to produce ATP for cells.
used by heterotrophs (organisms that cannot produce their own food)
Glucose is broke down by the process of glycolysis, which transfers some of the energy in glucose to ATP.> end products of glycolysis are fed into Citric Acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to produce even more TP>
-Glycolysis and Krebs cycle= cellular respiration.
C6H12O6 +6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O +Energy
glucose+ oxygen -> carbon dioxide+ water+ energy
composed of three bases. code made up of the sequences of the nitrogenous bases of DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine.
a chain of amino acid forms proteins.
chromosomes contain stretches of DNA that control information that controls hereditary traits.
are the work horses of the cell, one gene matches to one protein. It is the proteins that are responsible for the expression of genetic traits.
a complete set of DNA for an individual that contains all genes occur primarily by 2 mechanisms: error during DNA replication or via mutagen.
a substance that induces mutations.
inspect DNA for damage and attempt to repair it.
modifications by mutagens often occurs over a section of DNA, the excision repair will cut the defective strand and remove it, and allow DNA polymerase to generate a new and correct piece of DNA.
- an individual may accumulate germ cells over their lifetime that lead to diseases/disorders. Those mutations will only pass on to future generations if they are present in the DNA of GERM cells.
reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum.
ex) someone can develop skin cancer due to excess sun exposure, but that person's offspring will not also have skin cancer unless those mutations are all found in the gametes.
physical expressions of genetic traits.
ex) seed color, flower color, brown hair, blue eyes
underlying genetic makeup or code. blueprint for building and maintaining all structures within the cells of the body.
determines hereditary traits that will be passed on between generations.
study of heredity or how traits are passed on from parent to offspring.
graphical way to show all possible combinations of alleles given the two parents' genotype.
waves of radiation that are characterized by electric and magnetic fields.
spectrum: (short to long)
anything that takes up space and has mass.
is the quantity of matter an object has.
substances that can not be broken into simpler types
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
dynamic event that alters the chemical makeup of an atom may cause an imbalance in the charge resulting in excess protons (or electrons)
total number of protons and neutrons found within the nucleus of an atom
average mass of all of the known isotopes
imbalance produces a positively or negatively charged atom
atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
control the rate of chemical reactions or reactions in which atoms react to come to a stable rate.
the molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme.
the potential barrier of products compared to reactants is reduced in a reaction path requiring less energy
positive or negative distribution within it.
control the rate of chemical reactions, or reactions in which atoms react to come to a stable state.
reaction rates may be increased by the use of promoters or reduced by the use of inhibitors.
increase reaction rates by lowering activation energy.
molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme.
the potential barrier of products compared to reactants is reduced, resulting in a reaction path requiring less energy.
the arrangement of electrons within orbits around the nucleus.
electrons in the outermost shell of an atom, remain the same.
the chemical merging of atoms due to their electron arrangements
energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.
measure of an atoms attraction on electrons in a chemical bond.
ex) Carbon= 2.5
oxygen is more electronegative to attract bonds
proteins that are water soluble, are built from amino acids that form chains ranging from a few dozen to thousands of members.
is a measure of hydrogen ion concentration within a solution, and a substrate is a molecular surface acted upon by an enzyme.
solutions with a pH value less than 7
solutions with pH value greater than 7
* pH 7= standard, neutral
pH value calculation
electrical attraction between ions of opposite charges
sharing of electrons between atoms
methane, propane, butane bond to hydrogen and carbon atoms.
are the most basic structure of hydrocarbons
have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms.
alkenes= one double bond
Alkynes= triple bonds
is connected with the study of hydrocarbon strucutre.
4 Butane Isobutane
5 Pentane Isopentane
are elements that may accept or donate electrons readily, and posses a mixture of metallic and nonmetallic properties
provide visual representations of covalent bonding between atoms of a molecule.
are substances consumed or altered in the chemical reaction.
substances formed as the results of a chemical reaction
involve the donation and acceptance of electrons
involves electron donation to produce a more positive ion (LOSS)
refers to the chemical reactions in living organisms that are necessary to maintain life
involves electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion (GAIN)
molecule that posses both positive and negative atomic structures
can chemically split the liquid water molecule into gaseous components.
the ratio of mass per volume for a substance
metric temperature scale that is defined by the melting point of ice (O degrees C ) and boiling point of liquid water (100 degrees C )
triple point of water
temperature and pressure at which water will coexist as a solid, liquid, gas.
water has the energy required to raise on unit of mass of a substance by 1 degrees C.
enables water to undergo minor temperature changes compared to the environment
heat of vaporization
is the amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and a gas.
Heat is continually added to liquid at boiling point until gas state remains.*
-have a fixed shape and volume
-has crystalline order ( atoms are arranged in a highly ordered state, to a state in which atoms lack true order)
-exists in HIGH pressures and LOW temperatures
-fixed volume, of greater size
-can change shape
-has WEAK attractive nature
-spread out over a greater volume
-exists in HIGH temperatures, HIGHpressure
- can be amorphous, some have crystalline form
-changing volume and changing shape
-exists at HIGH temperatures, LOW pressures)
-WEAKEST nature bc it moves randomly
the energy needed to cause a phase transition at a fixed temperatures.
is the flow of energy due to a difference in temperature. liquid to gas transition through evaporation or vaporization.
liquid to gas
Low humidity and fast movement of the surrounding air mass.
liquid to gas.
caused by phase transition- an alteration of the physical state between a solid, liquid, and gas.
-slower than evaporation
H= M x L
to remove heat
H= - M x L
Gas to liquid.
removal of heat*
heat removed until liquid state forms
Chemical properties of water
-polar molecule (posses positive and negative atomic structure)
-density 4 degrees Celcius.
ex) ice is LESS dense than water= ice floats on top of water.
-pure H20 serves as PH standard
-possess the second highest specific heat after ammonia.
-has high heat of vaporization= amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between liquid and gas.
-water acts to moderate Earth's climate.
-universal solvent (dissolves many solids, liquids, and gases)
-polarity= high surface tension and adhesion
- abundant throughout the universe
-high latent heat= resist temp. change
-boiling point= 100 'C.
acts as catalysts for special chemical reactions within the human body.
-reaction is driven by temperature, pH, and substrate concentration.
- highly selective.
-participate in thousands of chemical reactions throughout the body.
-act to LOWER activation energy
-they can catalyze or reverse reactions.
-include: food procession, brewing, manufacturing ( biofuels and detergents).
-each amino acid sequence produces a SPECIFIC 3-D structure
cell must double its DNA and make a duplicate copy of the entire genome.
-cells use DNA polymerase to speed up process
-DNA polymerase moves down to DNA strand- errors might occur
-DNA polymerase performs proofreading and corrects problem
The moon does NOT provide its own source of energy.
-vision of moon is a reflection of the sunlights toward our direction.
-supports photosynthesis, which converts carbon dioxide and water into organic compounds.
-primarily responsible for climate change on earth
total number of protons and neutrons
# of protons
brain and spinal cord
PNS peripheral nervous system
cranial and spinal nerves that extend beyond the CNS
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