(biopsychologists) Psychologists who specialize in considering the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior
The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron
An electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron's axon when it is set off by a "trigger", changing the neuron's charge from negative to positive.
Specialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior, but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior
The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages.
Chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron.
A chemical message that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon.
A chemical message that prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire
A bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back and is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Neurons that transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system.
Motor (efferent) neurons
Neurons that communicate information from the nervous system to muscles glands.
Peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that includes the autonomic and somatic subdivisions; made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body.
The part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs
The part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements ad the communication of information to and from the sense organs.
The part of the autonomic division division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond as a threat
The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended.
The branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.
A chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream.
Chemicals that circulate through the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body.
The major component of the endocrine system, or "master gland", which secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system.
The "old brain", which controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates
The part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal
The part of the brain located in the middle of the central core that acts primarily to relay information about the senses.
A tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior, such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior.
The "new brain", responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain; contains four lobes
The site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue
One of the major regions of the cerebral cortex; the site of the higher mental processes, such as thought, language, memory, and speech.
Changes in the brain that occur throughout the life span relating to the addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, and the reorganization of information-processing areas.
Symmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite to their location.
The dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language.