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policing in america ch. 10,11,12,13,14
Terms in this set (82)
impetus for change
isolation from important segments of community.
research undermined traditional police management.
police role is complex
citizens as co-producers of police services
not enough police training
the broken windows theory
james Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, argue, is a sign that nobody cares about the appearance of the property.
includes such issues as public drinking, street corner gangs, street harassment, street level drug sale and use, noisy neighbors, and commercial sex.
includes such problems as vandalism, dilapidation and abandonment of buildings, and rubbish.
collaborative relationship between the police and the community
coproducers of crime control and prevention
a 2 way working relationship between the community and the police
community meetings between the police and the public, serves 4 functions.
1. it provides a forum for citizens to express their problems and needs.
2. it allows the police to educate citizens about crime and disorder in their community.
3. it allows citizens to express complaints involving the police and.
4. it provides a forum for the police to inform the community about their successes and failures.
comes in the forum of such programs as neighborhood watch, operation ID, and crime stoppers.
1. to stimulate and encourage officers to perform community policing functions
2. to make the organization more flexible with the community
-three organizational areas by (Eck and Maguire)
1. organizational structure
allowing for more discretion on the part of the line officer
2. organizational culture
police departments are willing to change
helping the neighborhood officer in the community develop contacts
legitimate police role
whether the police should fight crimes or help clean neighborhood housings
police gets a feel of good people in the community
spreads the management power to the patrol officers into the community
problem oriented policing
police should take categories of disorder and break them down into discrete problems and then develop specific response to each one. Not to build strong positive relationship but to reduce problems of concern to the public (Herman Goldstein)
1.scanning: -finding problems
2.analysis: -collecting information
3.response: -develop a strategy to solve problem
4.assessment: -evaluation of effectiveness of response
focused deterrence strategies
1. focuses police attention on a small number of offenders in a small number of neighborhoods.
2. establish a working group between agencies.
3. offenders are called into meetings with the police and are put on notice that violence will not be tolerated.
zero tolerance policing
-based on broken windows theory
-focus on disorder, minor crime, and the appearance of crime
-differentiates itself from community policing in that it is based on the presumption that the communities that need the police the most are the least likely to have strong community social institutions
- crime attack model
an official action by a criminal justice official based on that individual's judgment about the best course of action.
street level bureaucrats
police officers make decisions that produce actual police policy as it affects citizens.
- gatekeepers of criminal justice system by making decisions that could lead to a case or does not.
abuse of discretion
2. denial of due process
3. systematic under-enforcement of the law
4. poor personnel management
5. inconsistent policy
proper use of discretion
officer has used his or her discretion to unfound a crime because of a lack of evidence.
-use of good judgment
-efficient use of scarce police resources
-sound public policy
work environment of policing
contributes to the exercise of discretion
1. patrol officers work alone or in pairs
2. no direct supervision
3. citizen encounters occur in private places
low visibility work
hidden from public view, creates the opportunity for using and potentially abusing discretion.
factors limiting patrol officer discretion
1. legal factors: supreme court decisions, state court decisions, state law.
2. administrative factors: department policy, supervision.
3. organizational culture factors: peer officer culture.
1. seriousness of the crime
2. strength of the evidence
3. preference of the victim
4. relationship between victim and suspect
5. demeanor of the suspect
6. characteristics of the victim
7. race, ethnicity, and gender of the citizen
8. characteristic of the neighborhood
9. characteristics of the individual officer
3 informal organizational culture
2. legalistic: aggressive crime fighting tactics.
myth of full enforcement
1. police want to maintain a public image of authority.
2. if police admitted that they do not arrest everyone, it would raise serious questions about equal protection of the law.
3. admitting to use of discretion in enforcing certain laws would raise questions about police policies.
4. most states require the police to enforce all laws fully.
5. denying of discretion allows supervisors to avoid closely reviewing officer behavior and developing performance expectations.
3 strategies for controlling discretion
1. abolishing discretion
2. enhancing professional judgment
3. written policies=administrative rule-making.
1. what an officer must do in certain situations,
2. what he or she may not do in those situations, and
3. where an officer may properly exercise discretion.
- is designed to fill the gap by providing additional detail on how to handle specific situations.
SOP=standard operation procedure manual
is the central tool of modern police management.
1. greater openness and transparency
2. promotes reform
PCR=police community relations
refers primarily to relations between the police and racial and ethnic minority communities.
referring to the major biological divisions of the people of the world
referring to cultural differences, such as language, religion, family patterns, and food ways.
African American community
major focus of the police community relations problem.
growing rapidly and now the largest minority community
differential treatment based on some extralegal category such as race, ethnicity, or gender.
different outcomes that are not necessarily caused by differential treatment.
police perceptions of citizens
James Q. Wilson argue that police officers "probably exaggerate the extent of citizen hostility."
officers do not have regular contact with a cross section of the community
police officers are more likely to remember unpleasant events.
four systems of justice
1. crimes by whites against whites were handled as normal crimes.
2. crimes by whites against African Americans were rarely prosecuted, if at all.
3. crimes by African Americans against whites received the harshest response
4. crimes by African Americans against African Americans were often ignored.
use of excessive physical force by the police, represent the most common complaint voiced by minorities about the police.
officers "will use only the force necessary to accomplish lawful objects."
involve a crime control strategy of both identifying and apprehending offenders, and at the same time sending a message of deterrence to people on the street.
racial and ethnic slurs, are also a source of tension between the police and minority communities.
practice of police officers stopping drivers because of their race or ethnicity and not because of a legitimate law violation.
by John Lamberth
- trained observers drive on the roadway in question and observe the racial composition of all drivers and the racial composition of those drivers observed to be breaking a traffic law.
compares the performance of individual officers with peer officers.
the ability to understand and respond appropriately to differences in the languages, traditions, lifestyles, and patterns of communication of different racial or ethnic groups.
misuse of authority and personal gain
criminal and noncriminal behavior committed during the course of normal work activities or committed under the guise of the police officer's authority.
abuse of authority
action by police officer that tends to injure, insult, trespass upon human dignity and/ or violate an inherent legal right of a citizen.
costs of police corruption
1. a criminal act
2. protects other criminal activities
3. undermines the effectiveness of the criminal justice system
4. undermines the professionalism of a police department
5. a secret tax totaling millions of dollars a year, like bribes
6. undermines public confidence in the police
free meals, free dry cleaning, or discounts on other purchases.
-involve mixed motives on the part of businesspeople.
1. grass eaters: passively accept what is offered
2. meat eaters: aggressively demand favors
- officer taking money not to write a traffic ticket
- payoffs to protect a drug operation
- sell information about criminal investigations, either before or after arrests are made
any behavior by an officer that takes advantage of the officer's position in law enforcement to misuse authority and power in order to commit a sexual act, initiate sexual contact with another person, or respond to a perceived sexually motivated cue from another person.
only a few officers are independently engaged in corrupt acts.
several corrupt officers cooperate with one another.
pervasive unorganized corruption
a majority of personnel who are corrupt, but who have little relationship to each other
pervasive organized corruption
an organized level that penetrates the higher levels of the department
nature of police work
1. police work exposes officers to many opportunities to be corrupt
2. policing is low visibility work
3. impact of police work on officer attitudes also contributes indirectly to corruption
creating police corruption by initiating officers into corrupt activities and sustaining it by covering up corrupt activities by other officers
internal corruption control strategies
activities undertaken by a police department itself.
- attitude of the chief
- rules and regulations
1. standard behavior
2. inform community of the standards
3. consistency in police operations
4. provide discipline and counseling
5. standards for officer supervision
6. give direction for officer training
an officer can be disciplined and even dismissed for refusing to answer questions by internal affairs.
blue curtain of silence
the refusal of officers to testify against other officers, is one of the major factors protecting police corruption
another strategy used by police departments to identify corrupt officers
having to answer for your conduct
a process of professional self regulation and it is used in virtually all professions.
internal mechanisms of accountability
accountability procedures within the police department,
-officers' reports on critical incidents
-periodic performance evaluations
-investigation of alleged misconduct by the internal affairs unit(iau) or office of professional standards(ops)
external mechanisms of accountability
procedures that are outside the department
-political process: how the police chief is elected and what can that election mean in police corruption
-closely paying attention to officers that they are doing their jobs correctly.
-central tasks of police management falls on the sergeants
span of control
recommended span is between 8 and 10 patrol officers for each sergeant
employee assistance program EAP
officers can receive professional counseling related to the specific problem
a culture that exists in every police department that creates the policing environment and style
standard technique for holding employees accountable
identified 44 los ángeles police officers with extremely high rates of citizen complaints yet many of them received excellent performance evaluations
Internal affairs unit=IAU or office of professional standards=OPS
is responsible for investigating alleged misconduct by police officers
a formal schedule for disciplinary actions specifying both the presumptive action to be taken for each type of misconduct and any adjustment to be made based on an officer's previous disciplinary record
early intervention systems
to identify officers with performance problems
A statistical data indicating hot spots and other criminal activities that a department needs to focus on as the new week begins. shows the police department where their focus needs to be and what they can do to improve.
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