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98 terms

Music 1

STUDY
PLAY
a cappella
Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment.
melody
most important part of the song. Contain phrases
range
Distance between the lowest and highest tones of a melody, an instrument, or a voice.
interval
Distance and relationship between two pitches.
phrase
Musical unit; often a component of a melody.
patronage
Sponsorship of a musician, historically by a member of the wealthy or ruling classes.
liturgy
The set order of religious services and the structure of each service, within a particular denomination (e.g., Roman Catholic).
Gregorian chant
Monophonic melody with a freely flowing, unmeasured vocal line; liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church. Also plainchant or plainsong.
Mass
Central service of the Roman Catholic Church.
polyphonic
Two or more melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture, as distinct from monophonic.
organum
Earliest kind of polyphonic music, which developed from the custom of adding voices above a plainchant; they first ran parallel to it at the interval of a fifth or fourth and later moved more freely.
tenor
Male voice of high range. Also a part, often structural, in polyphony.
jongleurs
Medieval wandering entertainers who played instruments, sang and danced, juggled, and performed plays.
troubadours
Medieval poet-musicians in southern France.
a cappella
Choral music performed without instrumental accompaniment.
imitation
Melodic idea presented in one voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter.
word painting
Musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device; a prominent feature of the Renaissance madrigal.
Requiem Mass
Roman Catholic Mass for the Dead.
madrigal
Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in England.
embellishment
Melodic decoration, either improvised or indicated through ornamentation signs in the music.
tonality
Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale.
recitative
Solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio. Can be secco or accompagnato.
aria
Lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio.
cantata
Vocal genre for solo singers, chorus, and instrumentalists based on a lyric or dramatic poetic narrative. It generally consists of several movements, including recitatives, arias, and ensemble numbers.
concerto
Instrumental genre in several movements for solo instrument (or instrumental group) and orchestra. two dissimilar groups brought together
solo concerto
A concerto for solo instrument and an accompanying instrumental group.
concerto grosso
Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments (the concertino) and orchestra (the ripieno).
program music
Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations, especially popular in the nineteenth century.
sacred
music specifically intended for religion
secular
non-religious music
style
distinct flavor of one artist to another
All sound was a manifestation of music
Greek theory
Pythagoras
discovered mathematical ratios between intervals and created scales
Romans
Adopted music from the Greeks. Developed brass instruments for military applications
Pope Gregory
Collected existing chants, standardized them, and put them on the same musical style. Used call and response, with monophonic textures
organum
harmony keeps the same distance between notes
wondering minstrels
people who brought news and gossip, entertainment and music
troubadors
belonged to the nobility of Northern France. Composed original music...not dependent on other original styles or pre-existent melodies
medieval period
lots of symbolism. Religion influenced
Renaissance Date
1450-1600
Gothic Dates
450-1450
Description of renaissance period
Exploration (columbus). Protestant reformation. Humanism
Humanism
the potential of humans to accomplish thish
Dufay
took secular songs and converted them to sacred
Josquin Despres
used consistent organization of harmony. Imitation (round). Added Bassus (bass)
Palestrina
The Roman catholic church said his music was the perfect model of music
madrigal
secular music form from Italy. Short, unaccompanied, 3-5 parts. Word Painting...expressive
Instrumental music during the Renaissance Period
"party music", short, dance like, using different types of instruments.
Rhythm
beat. pulse of music
Harmony
supports the melody at a momentary part of the song
Chord
3 or more notes played together
tonality
Gives a sense of expectation. You know where the chords must go to
consonance
two notes that sound good to each other
dissonance
two notes that do not sound good to each other
monophonic texture
one voice/part
polyphonic texture
at least 2 or more voices
homophonic texture
1 voice has the melody. the other voices have the harmony
two types of woodwinds
single reed and double reed
two types of percussion
pitched and non pitched
Baroque period dates
1600-1750
Baroque style
detailed, overwhelming, intricate, excessive
Origin of the word Baroque
mishappen, grotesque
Description of Baroque period
conquest of the new world, middle class establishing wealth, monarchy power, age of discovery, wars with religion
Patronage System
Church and State systems. used for supporting the arts. works were many times created for events and immediate use.
"A Mighty Fortress is our god"
Martin Luther/Back
Fugue
Baroque form. Imitation. 4 voices
Multimovement Works
symphonies, concertos, sonatas. One musical piece containing different parts and pieces
Ritornello form
melody 1-->Ritornello melody--->melody 2-->Ritornello. "return"
Program music
Instrumental form. descriptive...paints a picture or tell a story
Absolute music
form that does not pant a picture
Concertos
Solo, Concerto Grosso
Solo Concerto
orchestra with one main player. Vivaldi
Concerto Grosso
3-6 soloists with orchestra. Brandenburg
Mouret
French Baroque Composer. Perform Rondo form
Rondo
ABACA form
Baroque Composers
Bach, Handel, Vivaldi
Classic Period Dates
1750-1825
Description of Class Period music
symmetrical, similar, simplified, refined. Intellectual approach to music
Classic Period Composers
Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven
Sonata
First movement of any classical piece
Sonata - Allegro Form
aba - fast
Section a of Exposition
Melody. Bold and Dynamic to get your attention
Section b of Exposition
softer, more gentle, more lyrical
Closing Section of Exposition
End of Exposition
Development section
Exploration of different chords and harmonies
Recapitulation Section
Re-statement of section a-b
Coda
Ending section of sonata
Characteristics of Baroque music
terraced dynamics, decoration, steady rhythm, continuous melody, dissonance
Opera
tells a story...acting/ballet...long...secular
Oratorio
sacred...tells a story...long. Handel's Messiah. mostly just singing
Cantata
sacred or secular. shorter
Three pieces of Baroque Vocal music
recitative, aria, ensemble
recitative
solo + accompanment. introduction to aria
aria
focus of song. solo + accompanment. longer
ensemble
duets, quartets, chorus. ie. hallelujah chorus
Third Movement in classical piece
sonata rondo
First Movement of classical piece
Sonata Alegro
Second Movement of classical piece
A slow movement