39 terms


What factors influence alcohol use?
Peer Pressure, Parents, and Media Messages.
How are the organs of the body affected by alcohol?
Brain: Memory and Judgement is impaired
Digestive: The stomach and small intestines are affected, causing stomach irritation and acid flow which causes ulcers.
80% of alcohol goes into ...
The small intestines
20% of European Men can ...
Digest alcohol and drink a lot more, Asians can not tolerate alcohol.
Liver breaks the alcohol into sugar, carbon dioxide, and water. 95% of alcohol ends up in the liver and 5% comes out from urine or as water vapor.
The liver can ...
Get rid of one drink per hour (optimal liver) and CO2 from liver may be released by the lungs due to excessive drinking.
- Stores glycogen (1/3 in liver 2/3 in muscle)
- Helps regulate blood sugar
- Digestive and Excretory function
- Filtering system for blood.
Effects on the Kidney
12 oz of Alcohol = 14 oz in wastes = Dehydration (hangover)
Effects on the Heart
- Alcohol in small amounts increases heart rate and in large amounts decreases it as its a depressant.
- Decreases respiration and stops heart.
-Blood vessels in the face dilate.
Effects on the Lungs
5% of alcohol is exhaled per breath and it suppresses breathing.
What Affects Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)?
- <0.1% or 0.08% in some states.
- Body size
- Gender (Males absorb more into muscles women retain it)
- Food (slows down passage of alcohol into bloodstream)
- Number of drinks consumed and the rate between drinks
- Condition of the liver
What factors influence behavior when drinking?
- Experience: Tolerance to alcohol
- Expectations: Mood is accentuated (more noticeable)
- Environment: Friends and those in proximity.
What happens when you mix alcohol with another drug?
It creates a multiplier effect in which the medication becomes enhanced or gives a different effect than if taken alone.
What happens when you drink and drive?
- Harm to the driver and others
- Severely restricted driving or confiscation of license
- Alcohol related injuries, property damage, and death.
- Arrest, jail times, court appearance, and a heavy fine or bail
- A police record and possible lawsuits
- Higher insurance rates.
Binge Drinking
Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting.
What should pregnant women NOT do?
Pregnant mothers should not drink because they're liver does not function as well during pregnancy nor is it existent in the unborn.
Symptoms of FAS
- Poor coordination
- Slow growth in uterus (< 5.5 lbs)
- Head deformities (Cleft pallet -> sinuses)
- Wide set eyes and nose is flat and wider
- Speech defects, vision problems, hearing problems
- Missing additional digits (fingers or toes)
- Heart, liver, and kidney defects
- Leading known cause of Retardation & ADHD
- Anti- Social Personality disorder or delayed mental development.
What happens to liver (long term)
Becomes fat and function is impaired
Cardiovascular Changes are
- Damage to heart muscle.
- Enlarged heart from increased workload (Cardiomayopoti)
- High Blood Pressure: Can cause heart attacks and strokes.
Turns eyes bright yellow from acids (Jaundus), high blood pressure, abdominal swelling, and hemlogen (internal bleeding)
Changes in Reproduction
- Menstrual abnormalities or failure to ovulate
- Fertility is impaired
- Men lose sex drive and testosterone levels decrease and estrogen increases.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
A brain disorder due to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Fabricate whatever is stuck in their heads, extreme un-coordination, paralysis of eye muscles, mental confusion, and amnesia occur.
DT's (Delirium Tremens)
- Hallucinations (visual and auditory)
- 12-48 hours after an alcoholic stops drinking
- Blood pressure increases
Merk Manual:
Medical manual, 15% mortality rate from DT's
Alcohol facts
- 7 cal/gram of empty calories (Nutrient Deficient)
Drinking under hypothermia
Brings blood to skin while your core remains cold so you only get colder not warmer.
What can speed up Alcohol Absorption
High alcohol content and carbonation.
Problem Drinker
Pure psychological dependence on alcohol to relieve emotional or bodily pain
Hard Drinker
Nutritional deficiencies psychological damage. Has no psychological dependance
Periodic Drinker
Usually abstinent but binge drinks and suffers from maniac depressive mood swings. Suffers from loss of control.
Steady Drinker
Vast majority of Americans
- Psychological dependence
- Increased tolerance and may binge.
Plateau Drinker
- Need minimum amount of intoxication
- Prevalent in France and skid rows in USA
- Drinks a little bit at a time.
Alcoholism Stages
Stage 1: Abuse
Stage 2: Dependence
Stage 3: Addiction
Disulfiram (Antabuse)
Makes you sick when you drink.
Naltrexone (Depade, ReVia)
Reduces craving
Acamprostate (Campral)
Reduces anxiety and insomnia.
- 7 drinks for women 14 for men per week
- Moderate drinking is good for heart disease, prevention, stroke, and diabetes.
- Red wine can lower risk of heart disease by HDL increase has Rezveratrol (anti-oxidant)
- Beer has 145 calories
- Moderate drinking (1 cup for girls, 2 for men) reduce dementia and cognitive decline.
- Cell phone users (educated, middle class) engage in more binge drinking
- Most binge drinkers are NOT alcoholics
- Caffeine + Alcohol = Hazardous
- 50% of spouse abuse is from alcohol
- 40% of problems in family court is related to alcohol
- 33% of all suicides & 50% of all homicides
- 40% of all violent crimes
- 66% of domestic victims relates to alcohol
- 50% of homicide victims have alcohol in their blood stream
- 14 million alcoholics in USA
- 1/6 of families are affected by alcohol
Avoiding & Shielding (Covering up)
Any behavior by the enabler which covers up for, or prevents the abuser from experiencing the consequences
Attempting to Control (Threats)
Behavior by the enable which is performed with the intent of taking over the abuser's drug use.