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12th Amendment

Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.

13th Amendment

1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery

13th, 14th, 15th Amendments

13th - Ended slavery, 14th - Gave blacks civil rights, 15th - Black suffrage

14th Amendment

1866 â€" Ratified in 1866. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.

15th Amendment

1870 â€" No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color, or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.

16th Amendment

Enacted income tax.

17th Amendment

Direct election of US Senators

1893 Depression

Profits dwindled, businesses went bankrupt and slid into debt. Caused loss of business confidence. 20% of the workforce unemployed. Let to the Pullman strike.

18th Amendment

Banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. It was ratified on January 16, 1919 and repealed by the 21st Amendment in 1933. In the over 200 years of the U.S. Constitution, the 18th Amendment remains the only Amendment to ever have been repealed.

1992 - what went wrong (GB1)

(GB1) American economy favored powerful not middle class, natioanal debt, employment fell, forced into low paying jobs, losing benefits of pensiosn and health, black and hispanic = hit hardest

19th Amendment

Granted women the right to vote (finally). (1920)

20th Amendment

Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.

20th Amendment

(FDR) , change of dates for start of presidential/congressional terms

21st Amendment

(FDR) , 1933, repeal of prohibition

22nd Amendment

limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve

23rd Amendment

(JFK), gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote

26th Amendment

(RN) , lowered the voting age to 18

27th Amendment*

(RN) , regulates pay raises for members of Congress

3/5 Compromise

The South wanted slaves to count of citizens in order to increase the population, and therefore increasing the number of Southerners in the House of Representatives. The North argued that slaves were property and couldn’t be counted. In the end, slaved came to be counted as 3/5 of a person.

54/40 of fight

An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk’s slogan â€" the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54 40 latitude. Polk settled for the 49 latitude in 1846.

A. Mitchell Palmer

He was chosen to round up immigrants that were questionably communists, and he ended up rounding up about 6000 people.`

A. Philip Randolph

President of the Brotherhood of Car Porters and a Black labor leader, in 1941 he arranged a march on Washington to end racial discrimination.

Aaron Burr

Was VP for Jefferson. Later killed Hamilton in a duel. Later still involved in a conspiracy to sever the western states.

ABC Powers

(WW) 1914 Argentina,Brazil,Chile offered to negotiate dispute between US and Mexico

Abraham Lincoln

Initially Senator from Illinois, rose to prominence through Lincoln Douglas Debates, led Union during Civil War, issued Emanciptation Proclamation, Gettysburg Address and Homestead Act. Killed after the war.

Acquisition of Florida from Spain

(JMon) Jackson gets Spain, praised by Adams and Monroe, not by Senate or House

Adam's "midnight judges"

A group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms

Adamson Act

(WW) , 1916; established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime

Adams-Onis Treaty

The negotiated sale of Spain's territories in eastern and western Florida to the U. S. for $5 million.

Adkins v. Children's Hospital

Reversed Muller v. Oregon, declared laws to protect women workers were unconstitutional. (1923)

Adlai Stevenson

ran against Eisenhower, , The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower. Ambassador to UN during Cuban Missile Crisis.

Admiral Nimitz

Commander of US fleet during WWII.

Aftermanth of Persian War

(WJC) UN wanted to inspect Iraq for weapons, so imposed economic santions, France, China and Russia oppose (since they had contracts with Iraq), then eventually UK and US considered ending sanctions, and Saddam ordered UN out of Iraq

Aftermath of the Vietnam War

(RN), 1973, when Nixon replaced American forces in Vietnam with South Vietnam, withdrawal caused hostilities between North and South in which as a result, all of Vietnam became Socialist Republic of Vietnam. (1976)

Agricultural Adjustment Act

(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.

Aid To Somalia

(GB1) civil war, UN peacekeeping mission, US forces limited humanitarian, Bush Adminstration rejected disarm warrin factiosn and pressed for negotiations, later turned over control to UN, results, back to fighting

Al Capone

Mob leader in 1920s. Sent to prison for income tax evasion.

Al Jolson

Starred in the first "talkie" movie with sounds called "The Jazz Singer."

Alabama (Geneva Tribunal)

*1869-1872, Seward negotiates with England on recovering damages from Civil War, Treaty of Washington 1871, solved dispute over fisheries, boundaries, and Alabama


Where a group of Americans made a heroic stand against a much larger Mexican force. Their massacre became a rallying cry for eventual Texan independence.

Alaska National Interest Lands

(JEC) total area of national park doubled

Alaska purchased from Russia?


Albany Congress/Plan of Union

A conference in the summer of 1754. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French. Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.

Albany Plan

Benjamin Franklin submitted the Albany Plan during the Fr. and Ind. War on 1754 gathering of colonial delegates in Albany, New York. The plan called for the colonies to unify in the face of French and Native American threats. The delegates approved the plan, but the colonies rejected it for fear of losing too much power. The Crown did not support the plan either, as it was wary of too much cooperation between the colonies.

Alexander Hamilton

Helped write the Federalist Papers. A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.'s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey. His programs were designed to pay off the U.S.'s war debts and stabilize the economy; he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.'s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.

Alexis de tocqueville

French historian whose book Democracy in Amerca was the first impartial study of institutions in the new nation.

Alf Landon

Ran against FDR in the 1936 election. He was weak on the radio and weaker in personal compaigning, and while he criticized FDR's spending, he also favored enough of FDR's New Deal to be ridiculed by the Democrats as an unsure idiot.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

"In 1890, he wrote The Influence of Sea Power upon History. He was a proponent of building a large navy. He said that a new, modern navy was necessary to protect the international trade America depended on and that control of the sea as the key to world.

Algeciras Conference

(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power

Alger Hiss

State Department official convicted of being a secret agent for the Soviet Union, based largely on the accusation of a communist. Congressman Nixon became known nationwide due to his involvement with the investigation.

Alice Paul

A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.

Alien & Sedition Acts

Laws aimed at restricting the public activities of political radicals who sympathized with the French Revolution and criticized Adam's Federalist policies. They provoked the Virgina and Kentucky Resolutions by Madison and Jefferson asserting State's rights.

Alien Registration Act?

AKA - Smith Act of 1940 made it a criminal offense for anyone to conspire to overthrow the government. It also required all non-citizen adult residents to register with the government. The Act is best known for its use against political organizations and figures, mostly on the left. A series of United States Supreme Court decisions in 1957 threw out numerous convictions under the Smith Act as unconstitutional.

Alliance for Progress

(JFK) 1961,, a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems, money used to aid big business and the military

American Anti-Slavery Society

Formed in 1844, a major abolitionist movement in the North.

American Colonization Society

Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.

American Expeditionary Forces

(WW), The Us forces led by General John Pershing who fought with the allies in Europe during WW1

American Federation of Government Employees?

An American labor union representing over 600,000 employees of the federal government. (State and municipal employees are represented by other unions, most notably the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) and the Service Employees International Union (SEIU). It is a member of the AFL-CIO. Its current president is John Gage (labor leader).

American Federation of Labor

(GC2) , Samuel Gompers, a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.

American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) ?

Founded in 1932, is currently the second- or third-largest labor union in the United States and one of the fastest-growing, representing over 1.4 million employees, primarily in local government and in the health care industry. Employees at the federal level are represented by other unions, such as the American Federation of Government Employees, with which AFSCME was once affiliated.

American Party

Political organization that was created after the election of 1852 by the Know-Nothings, was organized to oppose the great wave of immigrants who entered the United States after 1846

American Protective Association

A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.

American Railway Union

Founded by Eugene V. Debs.

American System*

1824 (JMon), Henry Clay, response to Tariff of 1824, program proposed by Henry Clay and others to foster national economic growth and interdependence among the geographical sections. It included a protective tariff, a national bank, and internal improvements.

American Temperance Union

(AJ) , 1836, It united temperance groups and distributed tracts warning against strong drink

Amnesty Act

Pardoned many of the rebels and allowed them to reenter public acts. (1872)


(RN), first major attempt to re establish adequate railroad passenger service

Andrew Carnegie

Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL. Philantropist

Andrew Jackson

1829-1837, (King Andrew, Old Hickory) Democrat, issue = 2nd Bank of America (Jackson and Clay), Whig Party emerged

Andrew Jackson and Florida

Jackson took military control of Spanish Florida, which encouraged the treaty with Spain 1819.

Andrew Johnson

Became president when Lincoln was assassinated. Later impeached for illegally dismissin a government official.

Annapolis Convention

Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation

Anne Hutchinson

Anne Hutchinson was a dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with a number of her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island

Annie Oakley

A performer in wild west shows around the turn of the century.


Term used for objects originating before the Civil War

Anthracite Coal Strike

Large strike by coal miners led by Miner's Union president George F. Baer

Anti Poverty Act

(LBJ) 1964, his act of war on poverty


(AL), 1862, the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation


Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states

Anti-Imperialist League

A league containing anti-imperialist groups; it was never strong due to differences on domestic issues. Isolationists. They fought against the McKinley administration's expansionist moves.

Anti-Masonic Party

Party that spoke against the famous secret society of the Masons, but was also considered to be very anti-Jackson. Followers often sought moral and religious reform.

Anti-Saloon League

National organization set up in 1895 to work for prohibition. Later joined with the WCTU to publicize the effects of drinking.


Native Americans in SW


(AL) 1864, , This was the last battle of the Civil War that ended in a Union victory.It ended the war. Grant defeats Lee

Appomattox Court House

Where General Lee surrendered to General Grant ending the Civil War

Archduke Ferdinand

His assassination sparked numerous alliances that led to WWI.

Aroostook War

Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.

Article X

Part of the Treaty of Versaille that created the League of Nations

Articles of Confederation

Adopted in 1777 during the Revolutionary War, the Articles established the United States of America. The Articles granted limited powers to the central government, reserving most powers for the states. The result was a poorly defined national state that couldn't govern the country's finances or maintain stability. The Constitution replaced them in 1789


A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods.


Hamilton's idea that the federal government would assume all state debts.

Assumption of State Debts

(GW) Plan by Hamilton meant to tie the states more securely to fed gov; states pay debt, created huge national debt, assumption bill. logrolling - one support another

Atlanta Compromise

Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice

Atlantic Charter

product of a secret by FDR and Churchill; discussed post war aims and goals; advocated self determination of peoples

Bacon's Rebellion

In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.

Baker v. Carr

(LBJ) 1962 Baker v. Carr, case decided in 1962 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Tennessee had failed to reapportion the state legislature for 60 years despite population growth and redistribution. Charles Baker, a voter, brought suit against the state (Joe Carr was a state official in charge of elections) in federal district court, claiming that the dilution of his vote as a result of the state's failure to reapportion violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The court dismissed the complaint on the grounds that it could not decide a political question. Baker appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled that a case raising a political issue would be heard. This landmark decision opened the way for numerous suits on legislative apportionment.

Bakke decision

Major decision in which the court upheld the general principle of Affirmative Action.

Balle of Bull Run

The first battle of the Civil War, which the North lost.

Ballinger/Pinchot Affair

Taft lost popularity when he supported Ballinger, who bended the government's environmental policies.

Banking Acts

(FDR) 1933, 1935 , AKA (Steagall Act) June 16. Separated commercial from investment banksing (recently overturned), established FDIC*** (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp) which guarantees deposits.

Barbary pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Barry Goldwater

Leading spokesman for American conservatism. Lost to Johnson in 1964.

Bataan Death March

American troops were treated with vicious cruelty in the 80-mile Bataan Death March to prisoner-of-war camps.

Battle of Britain

(FDR) 1940, German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were

Battle of Bunker Hill

The first great battle of the Revolutionary War.

Battle of Chancellorsville

Major battle in Civil War. South won. Stonewall Jackson accidentally shot and killed by his own men after the battle.

Battle of Gettysburg

Greatest battle of Civil War fought in PA. Considered to be the turning point in the War in favor of the North.

Battle of Lexington and Concord

First battle in the Revolutionary War. Paul Revere's ride and Emerson's poem 'shot heard around the world.'

Battle of New Orleans

(JM), Jackson defends city against British frontal attack, becomes national hero

Battle of Quebec

1759 - James Wolfe lead and army to meet French troops near the Plains of Abraham. Both he and the French commander, Marquis de Montcalm, died. The French were ultimately defeated and the city of Quebec surrendered. It was considered to be one of the most significant engagements in British and American history, and when Montreal fell in 1760, that was the last time French flags would fly on American soil.

Battle of Saratoga

Major battle in revolutionary war, lead to victory by Benedict Arnold (before he became traitor). Considered to be the turning point in the war, leading to France backing the Americans.

Battle of the Little Bighorn?

(1876): Also called Custer's Last Stand, it was the most famous incident of the Indian Wars. Cheyenne and Sioux indians killed Custer and all of his men.

Battle of Yorktown

Last battle of Revolutionary War. Cornwallis surrendered to Washington here.

Battles during War of 1812*

Battle of Lake Erie (Oliver Perry), Battle of Tippecanoe (Harrison and Tecumseh), Fort McHenry (Francis Scott Key), Battle of New Orlean (Jackson)

Battles of Lexington and Concord

The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston

Bear Flag Republic?

A republic that lasted for 25 days, started in Sonoma, CA in 1846 when Americans took over the town from the Mexicans. Once the Mexican-American War had begun, they joined America.

Benedict Arnold

An American general who betrayed the US to the British in the Revolutionary war

Benjamin Franklin

Founding father, signer of the declaration of independence, Ambassador to France and Britain, early researcher of electricity,

Benjamin Harrison

Gilded Age president. Congress under him known as the "Billion Dollar Congress" for showering veterans with pensions, passing the McKinley Tariff Act and

Benjamin Harrison' Party*

VP - Morton, SS - Blaine

Bernard Baruch

Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.

Bessemer Process

Bessemer invented a process for removing air pockets from iron, and thus allowed steel to be made. This made skyscrapers possible, advances in shipbuilding, construction, etc.

Betsy Ross

Believed to have sown the first American flag in the form of the Stars and Stripes.

Betty Friedan

Wrote The Feminine Mystique, a book that proved fundamental to the women's movement of the 1960s. Founder of National Organization for Women.

Big ten

A group of pominent midwestern universities known for high academic standards and keen atheletic competition.

Bill Of Rights

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

Billy the kid

Gunslinger in New Mexico.

Black Codes

Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.

Black Muslims

A radical movement for black power under the leadership of Malcolm X.

Black Panthers

Militant black power organization of the 1960s founded by Huey Newton.

Black power

Called for independent development of political and social institutions for black people.

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929-The day that the stock market crashed.

Bland Allison Act*****

(RBH) 1878 , 1878 law passed over the veto of President Rutherford B. Hayes requiring the U.S. treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars. The goal was to subsidize the silver industry in the Mountain states and inflate prices, no less than $2 million and no more than $4 million

Bleeding Kansas?

Sometimes referred to as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving abolitionists (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1856. It led up to the civil war.

Blue law

a type of law restricting activities or sales of goods on Sunday, which had its roots in accommodating Christian Sunday worship, although it persists to this day more as a matter of tradition. The term blue law may have been first used by Reverend Samuel Peters in his book General History of Connecticut, which was first published in 1781, to refer to various laws first enacted by Puritan colonies in the 17th century which prohibited the selling of certain types of merchandise and retail or business activity of any kind on certain days of the week (usually Sunday).

Bonnie and Clyde

Outlaws on a two year spree of murder and bank robbery in

Booker T. Washington

Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues.

Border States

States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did no secede.

Boss Tweed

Most famous political boss - HQed in NYC

Boston Massacre

British soldiers killed protestors of British rule. This increased the colonists inclination toward revolution.

Boston Tea Party

A "revolt" on the Tea Act passed by Parliament; Sons of Liberty dressed up like Indians raided English ships in Boston Harbor. They dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor. Led to Coercive Acts. (1773)


(AL) , payments to encourage volunteers (North not South)

Boxer Rebellion

(WMc) , A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.


Mexican workers that were brought to America to work when so many men and women were gone from home during World War II that there weren't enough workers.

Brady Bill

(WJC) 1993; handgun violence prevention act; legislation that established a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases

Brain trust

A group of intellectuals and planners who act as advisors, especially to a government.

Bretton Woods Conference

1944, (FDR) , The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.

Brigham Young

Leader of Mormons

British Orders in Council

A law passed by the English while fighting the French in 1793. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn’t get supplies, but American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy, leading to the War of 1812.