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Unit 7: The Geography of Religion
Unit 7: Chapter 8- The Geography of Religion
Terms in this set (46)
a cultural system of beliefs, traditions, and practices, often centered around the worship of a deity or deities.
faiths that seek to convert non-believers to their ranks.
Examples: Christianity and Islam
Religions that are primarily associated with one ethnicity, such as Judaism in Israel, Shinto in Japan or Hinduism in India.
Faiths practiced by small, isolated groups of people who largely live in developing areas of the world.
the belief that deities or soul inhabit everyday objects
believing in one god
believing in many gods
a body of religious, cultural, and philosophical beliefs that is native to India and based on a caste system; it is characterized by a belief in reincarnation, by a belief in a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils.
a key concept in Hinduism, it is defined as one's duties or obligations in life. It is the basis of the caste system. (Social structure; the Untouchables)
in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism, the notion that every action a person takes, whether good or bad, has a consequence in the future.
the belief that souls are reborn after death in other forms.
Cycle of Rebirth
a state of perfect understanding of all things.
achieving liberation from earthly desires
the enlightened one
a group of philosophical writings contributed to the theology of ancient Hinduism, elaborating on the earlier Vedas.
a religion or philosophy, originated on the Indian subcontinent, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment.
the "Buddha" literally means the enlightened one. Was born in the foothills of the Himalayas (c. 563 BC). Sought enlightenment and wisdom throughout his lifetime.
a Buddhist term for the release from selfishness and pain. Only one can reach nirvana will become enlightened.
The primary teachings of Buddhism; also known as the Tripitaka.
written or recorded after the Buddha's death
the oldest of the two branches of Buddhism. Practiced mainly in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, and Cambodia, its beliefs are relatively conservative, holding close to the original teachings of the Buddha.
one of two largest branches of Buddhism, practiced primarily in East and Southeast Asia. Generally, it has more mystical and spiritual elements than Theraveda Buddhism.
the branch of Buddhism practiced primarily in Tibet and Mongolia.
an old, monotheistic, and ethnic religion, which despite its small size, has had a strong influence on human history and which formed a spiritual foundation for Christianity and Islam.
the expulsion of the Jew from their homeland
Canaan and Israel
in Judaism, the first five book of the Hebrew scriptures.
preparing according to Jewish laws and traditions and most commonly refer to food.
the world's largest religion, grounded in Judaic beliefs and based on the life and teaching of Jesus Christ, who Christians believe is the son of God.
a Jewish prophet, whose teachings form the basis for Christianity and whom Christians believe was the Messiah. Christ is Greek for the "anointed one"
a monotheistic religion with two major sects. It was founded in the seventh century by the prophet Muhammad and is now the second largest religion in the world.
the seventh century prophet that Muslims believe is messenger of God, the founder of the religion of Islam.
a Chinese folk religion or philosophy that began about 2500 yars ago and that emphasizes proper social relationships and individual mortality
an ancient Chinese philosophy or religion focused on individual mortality, self-restraint, and humility. *Mystical and Esoferic; Yin and Yang
African Traditional Religions
various, mostly animistic religions practiced in Africa. In addition, they are based in nature and ancestor worship or veneration is a significant component of these faiths.
a monotheistic religion founded in South Asia (Punjab) in the late 15th century by Guru Nanak as a reaction to perceived problems with the teaching of Islam and Hinduism. It preaches equalities for men and women. Followers do not cut their hair (turbans)
About 20 million adherents worldwide; Karma and reincarnation
a small religion founded in the sixth century BC and practiced mostly in India or where Indians settle. It emphasizes the elimination of all activity that would accumulate bad karma.
About 4 million Jains; temples and monks
a universalizing religion founded in the nineteenth century in Iraq and Iran and practiced in nearly every country today. It seeks to unite all people's of the world.
Roughly 6 million followers
the ancient, ethnic, and animistic religion of Japan. Believers acknowledge that gods (kami) are present in all natural objects.
Strong ties to Buddhism; Shrines; 4 million total
Sacred vs. Profane Landscapes
profane places are ordinary and unholy, where sacred places have religious or spiritual meaning
examples just in a city of Jerusalem include to the wailing or Western Wall (Judaism) and the Church of the Holy Sculpture (Christianity)
an example includes Chaco Canyon in New Mexico which is the ancient home of the Pueblo Indians.
places that are sacred to a religion because it is believed that a deity or other supernatural entity came into direct contact with humans at those locations. *The Dome of the Rock (Islam)
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