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Sociology of the Family
You're welcome B*tches!! A Sociology of the Family Inquisitive
Terms in this set (102)
The family is one type of institutional arena in which people in common positions, such as mothers, are governed by widely shared rules of interaction. For example, an older sibling is expected to watch out for his or her younger sibling
institutional arena, mothers, rules, watch out for
Which of the following are examples of big data
*Data on how long millions of website users spend on various pages depending on their layouts and color schemes.
**Data on all marriage licenses from 1970 to the present
Match each interpretation of the social meaning of sports to the appropriate theory
*Sports distract the masses from important issues that those in power define.
*Sports exploit athletes who are used for profit that accrues to elites.
*By participating in sporting events, fans learn the value of fair play and hard work.
*Sports promote feelings of nationalism and belonging among fans.
Because the word family means different things to different people, the textbook provides a broad definition of families as groups of people who are bound by which of the following types of connections?
Read this blog post about reporting research on race and earnings. Which of the following issues does the blog post raise in regard to this research
The research ignores differences between immigrants and non-immigrants.
The research groups all Asian individuals together.
The research analyzes men and women separately.
The research uses a skewed sample.
Researchers find that children whose parents divorce when the children are young have worse outcomes, on average, than young children whose parents stay together.
Which of the following are reasons why this association may be correlational, not causal?
Many children of divorced parents live with their mothers, who earn substantially less money, on average, than fathers.
Children of divorced parents have often witnessed parents' conflicts for months or years before the divorce.
Some families are more prone to divorcing than others.
The U.S. Census plays a crucial role in the development of public infrastructure, and its data collection efforts are administered by private companies, at great expense. Even with use of online forms and mobile technology, the 2020 U.S. Census is projected to cost more than $13 billion and employ hundreds of thousands of workers visiting American households. The census collects data on every extended family member and enumerates families based on how respondents define their family relationships.
visiting American households
Which of the following issues of bias does the chapter raise in relation to conducting Internet "quick vote" surveys like the one about housework conducted by CNN?
Issue(s) of Bias
CNN viewers may be different from "average" Americans.
Some people do not have access to the Internet.
Select all of the relationships that the U.S. Census Bureau would officially count as "nonrelative" relationships.
unmarried same and nonsame sex couples, fosters, room mates, other nonrelative
Fill in the blanks to complete the passage about big data.
:One of the primary advantages to big data research is that it collects data on observed -. A disadvantage is that this kind of research requires -.
Behavior, powerful computers
One of the contributions of - theory is the notion that boys and girls are - into their -, and therefore they learn how to inhabit - positions in the family.
feminist, socialized, gender role, unequal
In the "Story Behind the Numbers" infographic, the narrator describes how the family arena often overlaps with the market arena and the state arena. (Note that this animation was made before the 2015 Supreme Court ruling that legalized same-sex marriage in all 50 states).
Based on what you learned from the textbook, match each arena (family, market, and/or state) to each example.
*adopting a child: family and state
*setting a family rule about eating dinners together: Family only
*paying taxes on a family home: family, market, and state
*holding a wedding reception:family and market
Which of the following interpretations of human behavior fit within the structural functionalist perspective
Structural Functionalist Perspective
*Children learn to enact gender roles when they are young so that they can perform those roles later in life.
*Income inequality helps to entice the most skilled individuals to work for difficult but high-paying careers.
Match each method of data collection to the research question that it serves
*How do earnings change after romantic partners cohabit or marry?- longitudinal survey
**What meaning does marriage hold for young people?- in-depth interview
***How do married and cohabiting partners interact at home, and how does domestic interaction differ between the two groups?-observation
****What percentage of young people say they want to cohabit with a romantic partner before marriage?-sample survey
Order the following events related to same-sex marriage according to when they occurred, from earliest to most recent
US vs Windsor
Match each theory to its view of inequality within the family
*Inequality is one of the main drivers of history, and inequality within the family contributes to a system of inequality outside the family. - conflict theory
**Individuals occupy different, but equally important, family roles.- structural functionalism
***Family members have different resources, strengths, and weaknesses that they use to maximize their own gains within the family. - exchange theory
****Inequality is inherent in the breadwinner-homemaker model - feminist theory
Which of the following research questions could be studied from a life course perspective?
Could Be Studied from a Life Course Perspective:
*What effect did 9/11 have on adults who were teenagers during that event?
**What impact does the concept cohort have on the timing of when young people move out of their parents' home?
Which of the following are some legal rights that marriage grants individuals under federal law?
*When married, an immigrant can gain citizenship through his or her citizen spouse.
**Married partners are subject to new tax regulations.
The personal family is comprised of people to whom we feel - and who we - to define us as -. The legal family has a - definition and is limited to those related by birth, marriage, or -.
Which of the following examples fit the definition of a legal family?
a husband, a wife, and the wife's biological son
a divorced father and his daughter
a single mother and her adopted son
a recently married gay couple
Which of the following statements characterize American Indian families prior to the arrival of European colonists?
*In many tribes, wealth and power were transferred through families from mothers to daughters.
**Divorce was more common than among Europeans at the time.
Which of the following factors contributed to the move away from the 1950s "traditional" family in the second half of the twentieth century?
*Women increasingly worked outside the home.
**Federal programs aimed at protecting the poor and vulnerable gave many people more flexibility and independence.
Match each time period to the description of family structures at that time.
Baby boom period*high proportion of married couples, low proportion of single parents, and a growing proportion of individuals living on their own
End of the nineteenth century**high proportion of married couples and low proportion of individuals living on their own
Present day***steady rate of less than 50 percent of households with married couples and an increasing proportion of nonfamily households
End of the twentieth century****steep growth of individuals living alone and moderate growth of single-parent households
Place the following forms of family life in pre- and post-colonial America in chronological order.
Woman had little
The spread of
What argument does the author make about this figure?
-Top 100 girls' names as a percent of all girls born
Parents are given greater freedom to choose more diverse names
Which of the following statements reflect an accurate reading of this graph?
-The percentage of women ages 25 to 34 who lived alone stayed fairly constant and low between 1870 and 1970.
-The percentages of men and women ages 25 to 34 who lived alone rose sharply after 1970.
-The percentage of men ages 25 to 34 who lived alone experienced some volatility between 1870 and 1970, resulting in a U-shaped pattern.
Which of the following factors contributed to increasing economic inequality between husbands and wives during the nineteenth century
the arrangement of women working at home and men in the labor force
Watch the "Story Behind the Numbers" infographic. Based on what you learned, which of the following factors contributed to the rising fertility rate of the baby boom?
Men were employed in good jobs.
Men and women married young.
A weakness of the - marriage is that it was built on the ideal of love. Yet as the chapter points out, if - between spouses lessened, there were fewer outside pressures to keep them together. The result was an increase in - during the twentieth century.
One of the unintended consequences of the reorganization of family life in the nineteenth century was that widows and orphans were no longer cared for by their -. Instead, institutions such as - took this role.
Archaeological evidence shows that the nuclear family (consisting of a mother, a father, and their offspring) was the norm in the Neolithic period.
What was a relatively common form of polygamy in the nineteenth century?
The practice in Mormon
Which of the following examples fit the cultural doctrine of separate spheres?
Middle-class wives primarily took care of the home and children.
Most men left home to work during the day and returned home when the workday ended.
The modern welfare system evolved from a program that provided federal support to the widows of Civil War soldiers.
Place the following events in the lifetime of people who married in the 1940s and 1950s in chronological order.
Which changes have led to an increased role of grandparents in children's lives?
increasing rates of single parenthood
improved health care
falling birth rates
Which of the following factors likely contributed to African American families' strong extended family ties?
African American families were often poor, requiring shared resources.
African American marital relationships were more fragile than White marriages and ended more frequently in divorce or widowhood.
Why does the textbook author attribute the rise in women's autonomy to the American Revolution?
The leaders of the American Rev espoused the virtue of autonomy which women began to embrace
Among the -, marriage served the function of - powerful families, whereas among the -, it was about securing - for survival.
Which of the following factors explain the declining number of births per woman through the nineteenth century?
Couples learned new methods of birth control.
Couples desired fewer children.
Select the point in the figure at which the male breadwinner-female homemaker ideal was most prevalent.
During the colonial period, parents typically passed on the family home to their - who often lived at home with the parents in a - arrangement. Broadly, however, colonial families usually did not live in - households with relatives.
Identify the ways in which the federal government increased legal regulation of family life during the industrial era
outlawing "obscene" material in the mail system
linking property rights to marital status
establishing and recognizing marriage credentials
Which of the following factors made building and maintaining families difficult for slaves in the period between 1619 and the end of the Civil War (in the mid-1800s)?
*Slaves could be sold, and therefore separated from their families, without notice.
**Most slaves did not have family names by which they could formally recognize lineage.
***Slave marriage and parenthood were not legally recognized by the states.
Match each family term to its meaning.
*nuclear family--This family arrangement consists of a monogamous couple and their biological children
**matrilineal-- In this family arrangement, wealth and power are transmitted from mothers to daughters.
***patrilineal-In this family arrangement, wealth and power are transmitted from fathers to sons.
****conjugal family--This family arrangement consists of a monogamous couple and their biological children and functions independently of extended family members.
What are some key changes that have occurred in marital status among African Americans over this period?
*Divorced and separated individuals occupy a much larger percentage of the population today.
**Cohabitants now account for some of the population that was considered married in the late 1800s.
Which of the following roles related to marriage did state-established churches play in early European societies?
*determining the validity of marriages
**presiding over marriage ceremonies
***allocating power and property among family members
Fill in the missing sections of the table depicting patriarchal and companionship families.
*Parental influence, social status, and economic needs
**Happiness and personal growth
Match each nineteenth-century American group to its characteristic of family life.
*Family members exhibited a strong sense of obligation toward one another.
**The split-household family was common and crossed national borders.
***This group embraced polygamy as a common practice.
****Families exhibited relatively greater gender equality than other groups.
In the early to mid-twentieth century, which of the following incentives did the federal government offer young adults to get married?
*Married workers earned relatively high wages.
**Federal programs were developed to promote marriage.
What did the phrase "so chosen, he is her lord" mean for women during the American colonial period?
Once chosen the woman must obey her husband
Marriage became truly optional after new forms of independence became possible. Match each form of independence to the associated institutional arena.
individual rights and liberties
employment outside the home
Which of the following are current trends in urbanization?
*Cities are encouraging more sharing-economy amenities such as bike- and car-sharing.
**City planners are building more small apartments that house only one or two people
In the story introducing this chapter, the birth of fraternal twins who would appear to belong to different races is meant to suggest that race is not a strictly genetic category but rather is a social interpretation of human difference.
Identify the reasons why the proportion of Americans who identify as American Indian and one other race is high compared with the proportion who identify only as American Indian.
*Becoming economically or socially successful in the United States often meant migrating away from one's tribe.
**Many American Indian children were forcibly separated from their families, setting the stage for greater contact with members of other races.
People who share a cultural identification can be grouped together under a single -, whereas those who are believed to share common genetic or biological descent are often seen as belonging to the same -. An important difference is that, in the United States, race is typically a more -component of identity over the course of a person's life, whereas ethnicity, for some groups, is often -.
Today, American Indians face high levels of - and low levels of education beyond the -level. This was not always the case, however. Before facing pressure from - and settlers, American Indians lived in tribes and held - definitions of family and family relationships, and they valued - over competition.
the U.S. government
Match each term to the group it most specifically represents: a race, an ethnicity, or a racial ethnicity.
What it means to be "White" in America has evolved over time. Place the following events in chronological order, according to the development of Whiteness in the United States.
see screen shot
Identify the statements about acculturation and assimilation as either true or false.
Learning the language of the host society is important for both processes.
Acculturation can happen without assimilation, but not vice versa.
Acculturation can happen without acceptance by the host society, but that is not the case for assimilation
Most social science research supports the argument that elements of the Black family structure today, such as matriarchal households and children raised by extended family members, are inherited from African traditions.
Identify the statements about how Asian groups' immigration pathways to the United States impact their life chances as either true or false.
*Immigrants who are highly educated before arriving in the United States have stronger resources to help themselves and their children.
**Immigrants who are forced to migrate to a new country because of economic deprivation or political persecution find it more difficult to succeed in the United States.
Match each immigrant generation to its example.
*At 6 years old, Ye-jun came to the United States from South Korea with his parents. Now in elementary school, he speaks English fluently and is well integrated with his peers.
**Michelle has a Russian grandmother who shares recipes with her and tells her stories about her life in Russia in the 1930s and 1940s.
***Kwame was born to immigrant parents from Ghana. Now a teenager, he disagrees with his parents about the appropriateness of his friends, clothing, and interests.
****Because her son needed help with child care in his new Texas home, Maria immigrated to the United States at the age of 63.
Read this blog post on the marriage market.
Based on the bar graph in the blog, rank the following groups from least to most likely to intermarry with those of other races or ethnicities.
Identify the circumstances facing Black families that likely made them appear more matrifocal—that is, mother-centered—than White families.
Circumstance(s) of Black Families
a lack of job opportunities for Black men
poor health among the Black community
Identify the factors that are important to the debate around undocumented immigrants and their families.
*Many adult undocumented immigrants have U.S. citizen children.
**The flow of undocumented immigrants to the United States has slowed.
Identify the reasons why humans did not develop distinctly different genetic makeups along racial lines.
*All humans lived in the same region until relatively recently, in terms of evolutionary time.
**Migration across "racial" borders produced mixed children, preventing the formation of very different races.
Place the following events, all of which had important implications for Black families and communities, in chronological order.
*end of Civil war
**The great migration
Classify the following as a cause or an effect of the kind of segregation pictured here, in Milwaukee.
preferential treatment of Whites in mortgage lending
The richest 1 percent of Americans earned what percent of all income in 2014?
Place the labels on the bar graph to indicate which social class each bar represents.
Left to Right: Lower, Working, Middle, Upper
Select the area in the figure that represents individuals in a class group with little chance of mobility.
Image on the right (stacked boxes)
Identify the examples of social mobility.
*Anita grew up in the middle class but dropped out of high school and worked in a string of low-wage jobs.
**Calvin grew up poor, attended college on a scholarship, and eventually became a surgeon.
Place the following racial/ethnic groups in order from highest to lowest poverty rate.
Indian, black, Asian, white
The United States uses the practice known as - when taxing -, requiring the - to pay a higher percentage compared with the middle class
What would this curve look like in a society that has less inequality than the United States?
The curve would be less steep
According to Melvin Kohn's classic series of studies, how do both middle- and working-class parents' experiences with work influence their parenting?
Parents teach their children interpersonal skills tht they use at their own job
The social process by which individuals are sorted into jobs and how those jobs are - is known as the -. The two major perspectives on social class, consensus and -, differ in their explanation of the causes and consequences of this process.
division of labor
What is one possible reason why inequality has increased over time, according to Joseph Stiglitz?
over time the wealthy gain control of more and more high - status positions and are able to change the rules to benefit themselves
Select the area in the figure that represents consensus theorists' view of inequality.
In this mobility table, numbers above 1.0 (shown in green) indicate that sons are more likely to be in the occupational category listed above if their fathers are in the category listed on the left; numbers below 1.0 (shown in yellow) mean that the outcome is less likely for sons.
Place the labels on the figure to complete the mobility table.
(TOP to bottom)
Based on the author's assessment of inequality trends, which policies might slow the growth of the superrich?
stricter regulations against lobbying
reductions in tax breaks for alternative income sources
stricter regulations on the finance industry
One measure of inequality is known as the -, which ranges between 0, indicating complete -, and 1, indicating complete -. The United States currently rates at a - on this measure.
Identify the statements that are associated with either the consensus or conflict perspective.
Inequality serves an important societal function.
More difficult jobs come with greater rewards, thus creating an incentive for individuals to train and work hard to obtain those rewards.
Select the bolded terms that represent class differences in media use.
unstructured free time
According to the blog post, family - matters just as much as achievement scores in predicting -. This finding may be partially explained by changes in educational - during high school.
What conclusion about education level and socioeconomic status (SES) can be drawn from this figure?
young people ofen replicate their parents
Identify the factors that contribute to high-income families spending more hands-on time with their children.
High-income families are more likely to have one parent who spends fewer hours at work.
High-income families are more likely to have two parents in the home.
High-income families tend to have fewer children than low-income families.
The poverty line was established in the 1960s to define those in need of government assistance. Identify the problems with the poverty line calculation today.
The price of food has risen more slowly than the price of other goods and services.
The calculation of the poverty line does not take government benefits into account.
The calculation of the poverty line does not take geographic area into account.
Place the following types of families in order from most to least poor.
Identify the probable consequences of wealthy family networks like the one represented in this figure.
Inequality widens in the United States between families like these and poor families.
Younger members of these families stand to inherit greater wealth than average Americans
The U.S. poverty line is calculated based on what it costs a family to buy food under the "economy food plan" multiplied by what number?
Identify the examples of social capital.
*Kelly Herrera has been working in finance for five years but feels stuck in her position. She reaches out to an older alumna from her college and after their conversation, the alumna invites her to interview for a better job at her company.
**Two neighbors discuss their children's upcoming entry into the first grade. One parent suggests to the other that he lobbies for his daughter to be placed in Ms. Andrews's classroom based on his previous poor experience with the other first-grade teacher.
According to Annette Lareau's research on social class and parenting, identify the statements that apply to either accomplishment of natural growth or concerted cultivation.
Accomplishment of Natural Growth
*Children spend much of their time with family and others in the neighborhood.
**Children may enjoy childhood more and feel less stress.
The United States has more social mobility than most other wealthy countries.
Based on the example and budget provided in the "Working and Poor" Workshop box, identify the reasons why two-parent families are less likely to be poor than single-parent families.
Two adults in a household can both work, and thus draw more income.
Two adults in a household can elect to have one parent stay home with the children.
Which factors make it difficult for the poor to advance economically in the United States today?
the falling minimum wage
increases in the number of single-parent families
For a society in which there was greater - (marriage across different social classes), this figure would have - dotted pink lines.
Identify the main forms of scarcity that single-mother families often face in contrast to two-parent families.
Which statement about family structure and poverty is supported by this figure?
Individuals living in single mother families comprise a large number, but not a majority, of poor individuals at most time points
Which theorist introduced a concept to help explain the social class position of college students, who may not have an occupation or earnings?
Matthew Desmond, the author of Evicted, reported that millions of families are evicted from their homes each year.
According to Desmond's findings, identify the factors that contributed to this high rate of eviction.
landlords force out tenants they don't want
the high cost of housing
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