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Fine Crackles

( rales ) dry high pitched crackling and popping, short duration.

Coarse Crackles

( course rales ) moist, low pitched gurgling, long duration.

Sonorous Wheeze

low pitched snoring, louder on expiration.

Sibilant Wheeze

high pitched and musical, heard on inspiration and expiration.

Pleural Friction Rub

creaky, grating, heard on inspiration and expiration.


high pitched, harsh, heard on inspiration in trachea or larynx.


fine crackle, coarse crackle


sonorous wheeze, sibilant wheeze, pleural friction rub, stridor


audible wheezing, prolonged expiration

Chronic Bronchitis

coarse crackles ( rales )


bronchial breath sounds in peripheral lung fields, diminished or absent in late disease.



Venturi Mask

most acurate O2 delivery method


60-100% oxygen delivery

Simple face mask

8-10 liters, at least 5L to flush out own carbon; 40-60%

Nasal Cannula

1-6 liters ; 20-40%

Partial rebreather

6-15 liters/minute ; 70-90%


diaphram contracts and flattens out, increasing the length of the thoracic cavity, intercostal muscles contract, elevating the ribs and increasing the diameter of the thoracic cavity.


diaphram and intercostal muscles relax; decrease in size of the thoracic cavity increases pressure, and air moves out of the lungs.

Bronchial sounds

heard over the sternum, last longer during expiration than inspiration; loud, high pitched, tubular, hollow-like sounds.

Bronchovesicular sounds

heard over the anterior one-third of the chest near the sternum and around the scapula posteriorly; medium pitch and intensity with inspiration- expiration being equal in duration.

Vesicular sounds

heard over the majority of the lungs; soft, low-pitched sounds, heard best during inspiration and may be audible during expiration.

Normal breath sounds

bronchial, bronchovesicular, vesicular.

Abnormal breath sounds

fine crackles, coarse crackles, sonorous wheezes, sibilant wheezes, pleural friction rub, stridor.

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