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an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling


seems to develop naturally as we travel through life

eye of the beholder

personality is often in the ________________


when an individual describes the personalities of many different people, there is a ______ degree of similarity


when many people describe the personalities of one person, there is a _______ degree if similarity

prior events, anticipated events

explanations of personality differences are concerned with _______ that can shape an individual's personality, or _____________ that might motivate the person to reveal particular characteristics

prior to

Researchers interested in studying events that happen ________ to our behavior delve into our subconscious and into out circumstances and interpersonal surroundings as well as studying our biology and brains

anticipated events

this concept emphasizes the person's own perspective and often seems intimate and personal in its reflection of the person's inner life --- hopes, fears, and aspirations

personality inventories & projective techniques

the general personality measures can be classified broadly by this


a series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state


true or false: questionnaires can measure things beyond general happiness, like tendency to respond rapid to insults, or complain about poor service

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

a well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems; has 500 descriptive statements that you answer true, false, or cannot say to; measures clinical problems like depression, hypochondria, anxiety, paranoia, and unconventional ideas or bizarre thoughts and beliefs

validity scales

assess a person's attitudes toward test taking and any tendency to try to distort the results by faking answers


this personal inventory is easy to administer, calculated by a computer leading to no interpretation, biases are minimized, but is only accurate with honest responses

response style

on personal inventories like the MMPI-2, the phenomenon when the participant always agrees or disagrees

projective techniques

a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality; measures personality factors that are out of awareness-wishes, concerns, impulses, and ways of seeing the world when presented with ambiguous stimuli

Rorschach Inkblot Test

A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure

perceiving the world as others do

somebody who is unable to see obvious items when he or she responds to a blot may be having a difficulty doing what?

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambitious pictures of people; talk about the main themes of the story, the thoughts and feelings of the characters, and how the story develops and resolves are considered useful indices of unconscious aspects of the person's personality


True or False: The TAT and the Rorschach are reliable tests in predicting behavior


This device was used to find that women are actually not more talkative than men

a person's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling

from a psychological perspective, personality refers to

interpretation is subject to the biases of the researcher

which of the following is not a drawback of self-report measures such as the MMPI-2

responses to ambiguous stimuli

projectives techniques to assess personality involve

two challenges for trait approach to personality

narrowing down the almost infinite set of adjectives and answering the more basic question of why people have particular traits

Gordon Allport

one of the first trait theorists


a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way

Henry Murray

originator of the TAT

personality inventories

researchers that examine traits as causes use these

projective tests

researchers that examine traits as motives


max amount of potential traits for people

dimensions/factors of personality

highest level traits


proposed 16-factor theory of personality

Hans Eysenck

proposed personality model with only two major traits, extraverted and introverted; also had a second dimension of emotionally stable or emotionally unstable (neurotic)


sociable and active


introspective and quiet

Big Five

the traits of the five-factor model; consciousness, agreeableness, nueroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion


consciousness, agreeableness, nueroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion

Cattell and Eysenck

these two psychologists contributed to the Big Five

reasons big five theory is upheld

1.strikes the right balance between variation in traits while avoiding overlapping
2. shows up across a wide range of participants

high in extraversion

people with this tendency tend to choose to spend more time with lots of other people and are more likely to look people in the eye

high in conscientiousness

people with this tendency tend to perform well at work and live longer

low in conscientiousness & low in agreeableness

people with this tendency tend to be more likely to be juvenile delinquents


true or false: personalities tend to remain stable through their lifetime


at what small stage of life is personality variable?


self-disciplined/ weak-willed





openness to experience



fun loving/sober

high in openness

these people have distinctive, unconventional rooms

high in consciousness

these people have well organized and uncluttered rooms

high in extraversion

these people had rooms that were warm, decorated, and inviting

agreeableness and neuroticism

these traits from the big five were not linked to specific room features

extraverted, agreeable, and conscientious

these people listen to upbeat and conventional music like pop and country

high in openness to experience

these people listen to reflective and complex music like jazz, classical; along with intense and rebellious music like rock and alternative


these kind of people smile more, appear more stylish and healthy

openness to experience

these kind of people have tattoos and other body modifications


true or false: personalities people project online are highly related to their real personalities

alzheimer's disease, stroke, or brain tumor, administration of antidepressant medication

these can cause someone's personalities to change profoundly

identical twins

__________ reared apart in adoptive families end up at least as similar in personality as those who grew up together


genes cause _______ for traits rather than traits themselves


based on brain studies, extraversion and introversion might arise from individual differences in ______


this gender is more verbally expressive, more sensitive to nonverbal cues, and more nurturing, more socially relationship aggressive


this gender are more physically aggressive


this gender is more high on agreeableness and neuroticism

openness to experience, helpfulness and sexual desire

the genders do not differ much on these traits (especially the first) from the big five

similar, different

men and women are far more _______ than they are ______ when it comes to personality

social role theory

personality differences between men and women result from cultural standards and expectations that assign them socially permissible jobs, activities, and family positions


these people take the betsy traits from both the female and male personalities


these kind of people tend to perform well at tasks that are done in a noisy, arousing context like bar tending or teaching


these kind of people tend to perform better in tasks that require concentration in tranquil contexts like as a librarian or nighttime security guard

Jeffrey Gray

proposed the two dimensions of extraversion/introversion brain systems as behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

behavioral activation system (BAS)

the "go" system, activates approach behavior in response to the anticipation of reward


the ______ has a highly reactive BAS and will actively engage in the environment

behavioral inhibition system (BIS)

a "stop" system that inhibits behavior in response to stimuli signaling punishment.

emotionally unstable

the __________ person has a highly reactive BIS and will focus on negative outcomes


a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way is a __________


which of the following is not one of the big five personality factors (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, orderliness)

brain damage

compelling evidence for the importance of biological factors in personality is best seen in studies of ______

Freudian Slips

unconscious everyday mistakes or memory lapses studied by Freud

psychodynamic approach

an approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings, and desires, largely operating outside of awareness-motives that can also produce emotional disorders

id, ego, superego

the mind consists of these three independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems according to Freud


the most basic system of the mind, the part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives; tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse


the component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands; the regulating mechanism


the mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority; the conscience ; rewards us with gratification feelings and punishes us with guilty feelings

personality structure

which system is dominant (id, ego, superego) can determine the person's ______


this system is the force of personal needs


this system is the force of social pressures to quell the needs of the id's personal needs


this system is the force of reality's demands, balancing the needs of the superego and ego


an unpleasant feeling that arises when unwanted thoughts or feelings occur


this system receives the alert signal in the form of anxiety, launching into a defensive position to ward off this anxiety


a response to anxiety, also known as "motivated forgetting," the process of removing painful experiences or unwanted thoughts from the mind


this area of the brain is deactivated when repression occurs; also known as the area of the brain linked to memory

defense mechanisms

unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce the anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses

Anna Freud

Sigmund Freud's daughter who identified a number of defense mechanisms


a defense mechanism that involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (mostly from oneself) one's underlying motives or feelings


Somebody who drops a class after failing an exam, and blaming it on the teacher or because the room is too hot is an example of _______________

Reaction formation

a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite

reaction formation

Being excessively nice to somebody who you despise, or being cold and indifferent toward someone whom you are strongly attracted is an example of _________


a defense mechanism that involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group


People who are themselves dishonest or disloyal to their partner judging their partner as cheating on them is an example of __________


a defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development


An adult returning to teddy bear cuddling or watching cartoons in response to something distressing is an example of ____________


a defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative


Slamming a door, throwing a textbook across the room, or screaming into a pillow instead of taking it out on your boss who you really hate is an example of ________


a defense mechanism that reduces feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful and better able to cope


A child whose parent who punishes, bullies, or spanks them, going on to spank their own children later on in life is an example of __________


a defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities


Football, rugby, hockey, and other contact sports, may be constructed as culturally sanctioned and valued activities that channel our aggressive drives. This is an example of ____________


this psychologist believed that basic personality is formed before 6 years of age in a series of five sensitive periods known as the psychosexual stages

psychosexual stages

distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect and interfere with those pleasures


each stage represents a battleground with the child's __________ and the external world

oral stage

the first year and a half of life, the first psychosexual stage, in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed

oral personality

those who develop a _______ from mistreatment in the _____ stage will have lives that center on issues related to fullness and emptiness and what they can "take in" from others and the environment. Personality traits associated with the oral stage include depression , lack of trust, envy, and demandingness

anal stage

between 2 and 3 years of age, the second psychosexual stage, which is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training

anal personality

those that cannot let go of soiling their diaper, may develop a __________, rigid personality who remain preoccupied with issues of control of others and of themselves and their emotions. They may be preoccupied with their possessions, money, issues of submission and rebellion, and concerns about cleanliness versus messiness

phallic stage

between the ages of 3 and 5, this third psychosexual stage, during which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict

oedipus conflict

a developmental experience in which as child;s conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent are (usually) resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent

phallic personality

people that fail to resolve the oedipus conflict remain with this personality, usually preoccupied with issues of seduction, jealousy, competition, power, and authority. females stuck in this phase are flirtatious, jealous, and seductive

latency stage

between the ages of 5 and 13, the first stage where the adolescent is not struggling with the sexual or aggressive drives, the fourth psychosexual stage, during which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills

genital stage

at puberty and thereafter, the fifth and final psychosexual stage, a time for the coming together of mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner

problems with psychosexual stages

critics argue that psychodynamic explanations tend to focus on after-the-fact interpretation rather than testable prediction

the id

Which of Freud's systems of the mind would impel you to, if hungry, start grabbing food off people's plates upon entering a restaurant


After performing poorly on an exam, you drop a class, saying that you and the professor are just a poor match. According to Freud, what defense mechanism are you employing?

the anal stage

According to Freud, a person who is preoccupied with his or her possessions, money, issues of submission and rebellion, and concerns about cleanliness versus messiness is stuck at which psychosexual stage?

humanistic psychologists

emphasized a positive, optimistic view of human nature that highlights people's inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth

existentialist psychologists

focused on the individual as a responsible agent who is free to create and live his or her life while negotiating the issue of meaning and the reality of death

humanistic-existential approach

integrates the insights of existentialist psychologists with a focus on how a personality can become optimal

self-actualizing tendency

the human motive to realize our inner potential, major factor in personality, the top of Abraham Mazlow's hierarchy of needs


Humanist psychologists explain individual personality differences as arising from the various ways that ____________ blocks or facilitates attempts to satisfy psychological needs


when people's goals match up with their true nature and capabilities, they tend to be ______


Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi found that engagement in tasks that exactly match one's abilities creates a mental state of energized focus that he called ______


Csikszentmihalyi found that tasks that are below our abilities cause _________

existential approach

a school of though that regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death


the difficulties we face in finding meaning in life and in accepting the responsibility of making free choices provoke a type of anxiety existentialists call _________


people generally pursue ______ answers and pursuits that help them deal with angst, like obtaining commercial goods or making sure they are the best looking that they can be

being loved

since superficial pursuits can block the potential for personal growth, it has been found that _______ is the single most protection against the feeling of angst


humanists see personality as directed toward the goal of ____________


According to the existential perspective, the difficulties we face in finding meaning in life and in accepting the responsibility for making free choices provoke a type of anxiety called _________

social cognitive approach

an approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them

BF Skinner

psychologist who said that differences in behavior patterns reflect differences in how the behaviors have been rewarded in past situations


social cognitive psychologists focus on how people ______ their environments


social cognitive approach focuses on ______

person-situation controversy

the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors

Walter Mischel

this psychologist argued that measured personality traits did a poor job predicting behavior


the average correlation between trait and behavior found by Mischel

Hawtshorne & May

these psychologists studied cheating in children and found behaviors are determined more by situational factors than personality psychologists thought

George Kelly

psychologist who suggested personal contracts as a way that people view the social world

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