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Chapter 11: Personality

an individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling
seems to develop naturally as we travel through life
eye of the beholder
personality is often in the ________________
when an individual describes the personalities of many different people, there is a ______ degree of similarity
when many people describe the personalities of one person, there is a _______ degree if similarity
prior events, anticipated events
explanations of personality differences are concerned with _______ that can shape an individual's personality, or _____________ that might motivate the person to reveal particular characteristics
prior to
Researchers interested in studying events that happen ________ to our behavior delve into our subconscious and into out circumstances and interpersonal surroundings as well as studying our biology and brains
anticipated events
this concept emphasizes the person's own perspective and often seems intimate and personal in its reflection of the person's inner life --- hopes, fears, and aspirations
personality inventories & projective techniques
the general personality measures can be classified broadly by this
a series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state
true or false: questionnaires can measure things beyond general happiness, like tendency to respond rapid to insults, or complain about poor service
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
a well-researched, clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems; has 500 descriptive statements that you answer true, false, or cannot say to; measures clinical problems like depression, hypochondria, anxiety, paranoia, and unconventional ideas or bizarre thoughts and beliefs
validity scales
assess a person's attitudes toward test taking and any tendency to try to distort the results by faking answers
this personal inventory is easy to administer, calculated by a computer leading to no interpretation, biases are minimized, but is only accurate with honest responses
response style
on personal inventories like the MMPI-2, the phenomenon when the participant always agrees or disagrees
projective techniques
a standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality; measures personality factors that are out of awareness-wishes, concerns, impulses, and ways of seeing the world when presented with ambiguous stimuli
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
perceiving the world as others do
somebody who is unable to see obvious items when he or she responds to a blot may be having a difficulty doing what?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambitious pictures of people; talk about the main themes of the story, the thoughts and feelings of the characters, and how the story develops and resolves are considered useful indices of unconscious aspects of the person's personality
True or False: The TAT and the Rorschach are reliable tests in predicting behavior
This device was used to find that women are actually not more talkative than men
a person's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling
from a psychological perspective, personality refers to
interpretation is subject to the biases of the researcher
which of the following is not a drawback of self-report measures such as the MMPI-2
responses to ambiguous stimuli
projectives techniques to assess personality involve
two challenges for trait approach to personality
narrowing down the almost infinite set of adjectives and answering the more basic question of why people have particular traits
Gordon Allport
one of the first trait theorists
a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way
Henry Murray
originator of the TAT
personality inventories
researchers that examine traits as causes use these
projective tests
researchers that examine traits as motives
max amount of potential traits for people
dimensions/factors of personality
highest level traits
proposed 16-factor theory of personality
Hans Eysenck
proposed personality model with only two major traits, extraverted and introverted; also had a second dimension of emotionally stable or emotionally unstable (neurotic)
sociable and active
introspective and quiet
Big Five
the traits of the five-factor model; consciousness, agreeableness, nueroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion
consciousness, agreeableness, nueroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion
Cattell and Eysenck
these two psychologists contributed to the Big Five
reasons big five theory is upheld
1.strikes the right balance between variation in traits while avoiding overlapping
2. shows up across a wide range of participants
high in extraversion
people with this tendency tend to choose to spend more time with lots of other people and are more likely to look people in the eye
high in conscientiousness
people with this tendency tend to perform well at work and live longer
low in conscientiousness & low in agreeableness
people with this tendency tend to be more likely to be juvenile delinquents
true or false: personalities tend to remain stable through their lifetime
at what small stage of life is personality variable?
self-disciplined/ weak-willed
openness to experience
fun loving/sober
high in openness
these people have distinctive, unconventional rooms
high in consciousness
these people have well organized and uncluttered rooms
high in extraversion
these people had rooms that were warm, decorated, and inviting
agreeableness and neuroticism
these traits from the big five were not linked to specific room features
extraverted, agreeable, and conscientious
these people listen to upbeat and conventional music like pop and country
high in openness to experience
these people listen to reflective and complex music like jazz, classical; along with intense and rebellious music like rock and alternative
these kind of people smile more, appear more stylish and healthy
openness to experience
these kind of people have tattoos and other body modifications
true or false: personalities people project online are highly related to their real personalities
alzheimer's disease, stroke, or brain tumor, administration of antidepressant medication
these can cause someone's personalities to change profoundly
identical twins
__________ reared apart in adoptive families end up at least as similar in personality as those who grew up together
genes cause _______ for traits rather than traits themselves
based on brain studies, extraversion and introversion might arise from individual differences in ______
this gender is more verbally expressive, more sensitive to nonverbal cues, and more nurturing, more socially relationship aggressive
this gender are more physically aggressive
this gender is more high on agreeableness and neuroticism
openness to experience, helpfulness and sexual desire
the genders do not differ much on these traits (especially the first) from the big five
similar, different
men and women are far more _______ than they are ______ when it comes to personality
social role theory
personality differences between men and women result from cultural standards and expectations that assign them socially permissible jobs, activities, and family positions
these people take the betsy traits from both the female and male personalities
these kind of people tend to perform well at tasks that are done in a noisy, arousing context like bar tending or teaching
these kind of people tend to perform better in tasks that require concentration in tranquil contexts like as a librarian or nighttime security guard
Jeffrey Gray
proposed the two dimensions of extraversion/introversion brain systems as behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
behavioral activation system (BAS)
the "go" system, activates approach behavior in response to the anticipation of reward
the ______ has a highly reactive BAS and will actively engage in the environment
behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
a "stop" system that inhibits behavior in response to stimuli signaling punishment.
emotionally unstable
the __________ person has a highly reactive BIS and will focus on negative outcomes
a relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent way is a __________
which of the following is not one of the big five personality factors (conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, orderliness)
brain damage
compelling evidence for the importance of biological factors in personality is best seen in studies of ______
Freudian Slips
unconscious everyday mistakes or memory lapses studied by Freud
psychodynamic approach
an approach that regards personality as formed by needs, strivings, and desires, largely operating outside of awareness-motives that can also produce emotional disorders
id, ego, superego
the mind consists of these three independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems according to Freud
the most basic system of the mind, the part of the mind containing the drives present at birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly our sexual and aggressive drives; tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse
the component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands; the regulating mechanism
the mental system that reflects the internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned as parents exercise their authority; the conscience ; rewards us with gratification feelings and punishes us with guilty feelings
personality structure
which system is dominant (id, ego, superego) can determine the person's ______
this system is the force of personal needs
this system is the force of social pressures to quell the needs of the id's personal needs
this system is the force of reality's demands, balancing the needs of the superego and ego
an unpleasant feeling that arises when unwanted thoughts or feelings occur
this system receives the alert signal in the form of anxiety, launching into a defensive position to ward off this anxiety
a response to anxiety, also known as "motivated forgetting," the process of removing painful experiences or unwanted thoughts from the mind
this area of the brain is deactivated when repression occurs; also known as the area of the brain linked to memory
defense mechanisms
unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce the anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses
Anna Freud
Sigmund Freud's daughter who identified a number of defense mechanisms
a defense mechanism that involves supplying a reasonable-sounding explanation for unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal (mostly from oneself) one's underlying motives or feelings
Somebody who drops a class after failing an exam, and blaming it on the teacher or because the room is too hot is an example of _______________
Reaction formation
a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite
reaction formation
Being excessively nice to somebody who you despise, or being cold and indifferent toward someone whom you are strongly attracted is an example of _________
a defense mechanism that involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group
People who are themselves dishonest or disloyal to their partner judging their partner as cheating on them is an example of __________
a defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of development
An adult returning to teddy bear cuddling or watching cartoons in response to something distressing is an example of ____________
a defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to a neutral or less threatening alternative
Slamming a door, throwing a textbook across the room, or screaming into a pillow instead of taking it out on your boss who you really hate is an example of ________
a defense mechanism that reduces feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful and better able to cope
A child whose parent who punishes, bullies, or spanks them, going on to spank their own children later on in life is an example of __________
a defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities
Football, rugby, hockey, and other contact sports, may be constructed as culturally sanctioned and valued activities that channel our aggressive drives. This is an example of ____________
this psychologist believed that basic personality is formed before 6 years of age in a series of five sensitive periods known as the psychosexual stages
psychosexual stages
distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas and caregivers redirect and interfere with those pleasures
each stage represents a battleground with the child's __________ and the external world
oral stage
the first year and a half of life, the first psychosexual stage, in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth, sucking, and being fed
oral personality
those who develop a _______ from mistreatment in the _____ stage will have lives that center on issues related to fullness and emptiness and what they can "take in" from others and the environment. Personality traits associated with the oral stage include depression , lack of trust, envy, and demandingness
anal stage
between 2 and 3 years of age, the second psychosexual stage, which is dominated by the pleasures and frustrations associated with the anus, retention and expulsion of feces and urine, and toilet training
anal personality
those that cannot let go of soiling their diaper, may develop a __________, rigid personality who remain preoccupied with issues of control of others and of themselves and their emotions. They may be preoccupied with their possessions, money, issues of submission and rebellion, and concerns about cleanliness versus messiness
phallic stage
between the ages of 3 and 5, this third psychosexual stage, during which experience is dominated by the pleasure, conflict, and frustration associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict
oedipus conflict
a developmental experience in which as child;s conflicting feelings toward the opposite-sex parent are (usually) resolved by identifying with the same-sex parent
phallic personality
people that fail to resolve the oedipus conflict remain with this personality, usually preoccupied with issues of seduction, jealousy, competition, power, and authority. females stuck in this phase are flirtatious, jealous, and seductive
latency stage
between the ages of 5 and 13, the first stage where the adolescent is not struggling with the sexual or aggressive drives, the fourth psychosexual stage, during which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual, creative, interpersonal, and athletic skills
genital stage
at puberty and thereafter, the fifth and final psychosexual stage, a time for the coming together of mature adult personality with a capacity to love, work, and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner
problems with psychosexual stages
critics argue that psychodynamic explanations tend to focus on after-the-fact interpretation rather than testable prediction
the id
Which of Freud's systems of the mind would impel you to, if hungry, start grabbing food off people's plates upon entering a restaurant
After performing poorly on an exam, you drop a class, saying that you and the professor are just a poor match. According to Freud, what defense mechanism are you employing?
the anal stage
According to Freud, a person who is preoccupied with his or her possessions, money, issues of submission and rebellion, and concerns about cleanliness versus messiness is stuck at which psychosexual stage?
humanistic psychologists
emphasized a positive, optimistic view of human nature that highlights people's inherent goodness and their potential for personal growth
existentialist psychologists
focused on the individual as a responsible agent who is free to create and live his or her life while negotiating the issue of meaning and the reality of death
humanistic-existential approach
integrates the insights of existentialist psychologists with a focus on how a personality can become optimal
self-actualizing tendency
the human motive to realize our inner potential, major factor in personality, the top of Abraham Mazlow's hierarchy of needs
Humanist psychologists explain individual personality differences as arising from the various ways that ____________ blocks or facilitates attempts to satisfy psychological needs
when people's goals match up with their true nature and capabilities, they tend to be ______
Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi found that engagement in tasks that exactly match one's abilities creates a mental state of energized focus that he called ______
Csikszentmihalyi found that tasks that are below our abilities cause _________
existential approach
a school of though that regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death
the difficulties we face in finding meaning in life and in accepting the responsibility of making free choices provoke a type of anxiety existentialists call _________
people generally pursue ______ answers and pursuits that help them deal with angst, like obtaining commercial goods or making sure they are the best looking that they can be
being loved
since superficial pursuits can block the potential for personal growth, it has been found that _______ is the single most protection against the feeling of angst
humanists see personality as directed toward the goal of ____________
According to the existential perspective, the difficulties we face in finding meaning in life and in accepting the responsibility for making free choices provoke a type of anxiety called _________
social cognitive approach
an approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them
BF Skinner
psychologist who said that differences in behavior patterns reflect differences in how the behaviors have been rewarded in past situations
social cognitive psychologists focus on how people ______ their environments
social cognitive approach focuses on ______
person-situation controversy
the question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors
Walter Mischel
this psychologist argued that measured personality traits did a poor job predicting behavior
the average correlation between trait and behavior found by Mischel
Hawtshorne & May
these psychologists studied cheating in children and found behaviors are determined more by situational factors than personality psychologists thought
George Kelly
psychologist who suggested personal contracts as a way that people view the social world
personal constructs
dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences; i.e. of a clown, taking a long break from work is either lazy or a great way to catch up with friends
personal goals
____________ often reflect the tasks that are appropriate to the person's situation
common goals for adolescents
being popular, achieving greater independence, from parents and family, and getting into their first choice college
common goals for adults
developing a meaningful career, finding a mate, securing financial stability, and starting a family
outcome expectancies
a person's assumptions about the likely consequences of a future behavior; we perform behaviors that we expect will have the outcome of moving us closer to our goals
locus of control
a person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external to the environment
internal locus of control
those people who have the tendency to feel like they control the world around them and their destiny
external locus of control
those people who have a tendency to feel like outcomes are random, determined by luck, or controlled by other people. These people tend to be less anxious, achieve more, and cope better with stress
how people confront realities rather than embrace comforting illusions
Which of the following is not an emphasis of the social cognitive approach?
personal constructs
According to social cognitive theorists, __________ are the dimensions people use in making sense of their experiences
an external locus of control
Tyler has been getting poor evaluations at work. He attributes this to having a mean boss who always assigns him the hardest tasks. This suggest that Tyler has _______
18 months
we are able to recognize ourselves in the mirror at this age
what we think about ourselves
how we feel about ourselves
self concept
a person's explicit knowledge of his other own behaviors, traits, physical characteristics, activities, social roles, and other personal characteristics; develops from social experiences and has a profound effect on a person's behavior throughout life
narratives about episodes in our lives, personality traits
knowledge of ourselves is organized in these two ways
a story that we tell about ourselves
the traits we use to describe ourselves are _________
relationship with others
the sense of self, is largely developed and maintained through __________
over the course of a lifetime, we become ____ impressed about what people have to say about us
"generalized other"
George Herbert Mead observed that all the things people have said about us accumulate after a while into what we see as a kind of consensus held by the __________
we are likely to ________ to defend our self-concept against anyone whose view of us departs from our own
the tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self-concept
William Swann
found that we tend to engage in what he called, self verification,
extent to which an individual likes, values, and accepts the self
the way that self-esteem is usually measured
happier lives
those with higher self- esteem tend to live _____ lives, cope better with stress, and persist at difficult tasks
people we choose for comparison
important factor in self esteem
actual, ideal
if the _____ self is seen as falling short of the ______ self, we tend to be sad or feel dejected
authority figure
self esteem can be influenced when an important ___________ like the pope is watching you from the back of your mind, basically, you may feel more anxious
status, belonging, and security
benefits of self esteem focus on these three aspects
Social Status
people with high self esteem reap this same benefit that high-status animals of other species carry, they appear confident and comfortable, worthy of respect, this perception triggers natural affective responses
people with high self esteem reap this benefit. We have evolved to seek out _____ in our families, work groups, and culture, and higher self esteem indicates we are being accepted
people with high self esteem reap this benefit. This benefit stems from the existentialist approach that we are afraid of death. One way to satisfy this is to immerse oneself in activities like earning money, dressing nice
self-serving bias
people tend to take credit for their success but downplay responsibility for their failures
depression, anxiety, health problems
people who do not engage in the self-serving bias tend to have a higher risk for what?
a grandiose view of the self combined with a tendency to seek admiration from and exploit others, at its extreme, it is seen as a personality disorder
30%, name-letter effect
when asked their favorite letter of the alphabet, ______ say the letter of their first name. What is this called?
implicit egotism
the notion that people are not typically aware that they are influenced by the wonderful sound of their own names and other similar tests
the part of the personality that the person knows and can report about
self-concept; self-esteem
What we think about ourselves is referred to as our _____, and how we feel about ourselves is referred to as our _________
(all the above) status, belonging, security
On what do the key theories on the benefits of self-esteem focus?
the self-serving bias
When people take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures, they are exhibiting what?