38 terms

ASB 222 buried cities lost tribes

this is mostly about the sites and the dates of the upper paleolithic mesolitic and Neolithic
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Abu Hureyra
a site on the Euphrates River in Syria that was occupied during the Natufian and the Neolithic periods. Hunting Gazelle, Incipiant hearding.85K years ago domesticated sheep and goat, Wheat ,Rye, and lentils. Women faired the worst and had deformed big toes, osteoarthritis, and they were over developed on top. Burial of a shaman who had a deformity,was crippled and covered with stone slabs, buried w/ 50 tortoise shells, chopped off full foot and other skulls . Natufians
Agriculture
any activities to artificially increase plant yields using fertilizers or dividing water. the benifit is more units of food than plant forging. the down side is alot more labor= Intensification- more labor into the land and getting more out of it
Agricultural Revolution
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between around 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution.
Animism
the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of actions. Lasco cave, Venus Figurines, smpathietic magic, upper paleolithic
Ban- Po- Ts'un
5-600K years Ago, earliest site in china along yellow river- has huge drainage ditch and thier cemetary are in rows, demesticated pigs and dogs, millet grain and silk
Conscious selection
domestication of animals - on purpose
unconscious selection
domestication of plants- didn't mean to dometicate the plants, accidental
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Dolni Vestonice
Upper Paleolithic; 27,000 BP to 23,000 BP; Czech Republic; site of earliest known potter's kiln; 3 separate sites; about 100 ppl; venus figurines, animals, and some weapons, evidence of trade, 2300 clay figurines, hollowed bones for flute. Burial of lady covered in red ochre- 2 mamoth bones on top of her; Paralysis in her face( theres a clay carving of her found near her too)
3 teenagers-female in middle= ocre in public area
male on right= arms placed in pubic area
other male on stomach - turned away from female but holding hand with mask
woman prabubly died in childhood, male is her partnerand the other guy is her shaman and when she died they had to die with her
Domestication
modified genetic makeup of a plant or animal to where they cannot live without human existance
Fertile Crescent
earliest evidence of transition- crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria; A region of the Middle East arching across the northern part of the Syrian Desert and extending from the Nile Valley to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers- Iraq, seria, lebon, turkey and jordan and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
Franchthi cave
cave where the Stone Age Grecians lived - has enabled archaeologists to reconstruct stone age life; Part of evidence that agriculture was introduced near east europe- they all of a sudden had wheat sheep and goats
Homo Erectus
first homid to migrate out of africa, first to lose hair and wear clothing, first to control fire, "hearths in china & Kunean cave", first true hunter with spears- cooperative hunting techniques in groups, may have had language to communicate, don't have hyoid bone. dissappeared from archeological record 30k years ago for asia and 20k years ago for europe
Image/ sympathetic magic
symbols of rituals, setting up a scene to gain sympathy of thier prey
incipient cultivation
planting wild plants and then going back and replanting them
incipient hearding
heard animal into store pens until ready to eat them
Jarmo
a Neolithic village site in northeastern Iraq, dated 6500 b.c. and noted as one of the world's earliest food-producing settlements,, Neolithic agriculture village in North Iraq
16 layers with different settlements
Made it clear tht farming has been done at least 9,000 yrs ago (1st settled then)
Charred seeds were the evidence to this
8,000-4,000 BC
100-200 pple
Lascaux
a cave in southwestern France that contains Paleolithic paintings,, Location in France with some of the oldest known cave art. Art is constructed on massive scale, showing hunters, prey, and hand prints only in certain areas, some of the most famous paintings "hall of bulls"
Levant
present day Israel, Syria, Jordan etc.fertile crescent. Best evidence of transition- 2 sites
Ain Mallaha=earliest Village in the world,round structures, storage pits, grinding slones,89 burials first human/puppy burial shows compassion
Abu Huaya= Hunting gazelle, incipient hearding, burial of shaman crippled covered w/ stone slabs 50 turtle shells and a full foot, Natufians
Linearbandkeramik (LBK)
agricultural sites that tipified central europe.the first true farming communities in central Europe, dated between about 5400 and 4900 BC. Thus, they are considered the first Neolithic culture in the European continent,The word refers to the distinctive banded decoration found on pottery vessels on sites spread throughout central Europe, pottery consists of fairly simple bowl forms, made of local clay tempered with organic material, and decorated with curved and rectilinear lines incised in bands. The people are considered the importers of agricultural products and methods, moving the first domesticated animals and plants from the Near East and Central Asia into Europe
Mehrgarh
A site in the Baluchistan region of Pakistan that was occupied from about 7000 BC through the end of the early Indus period (mid-third millennium BC). During the aceramic Neolithic (6300-5300 BC) occupation of the site, the farmers appear to have domesticated zebu cattle and probably also sheep from local wild animals., (6200 B.C) site in highlands of Iran (near Indus valley), early agricultural site (grew barley & wheat)
Merimda
a major Predynastic settlement site on the western margin of the Delta, about 60km north-west of Cairo.
contained a number of oval structures about two meters long, built of mud or mud slabs with floors below ground level. Sometimes a small jar would be imbedded in the floor near one end of the oval, and a stick or hippopotamus tibia would be plastered against the wall near the opposite end. The buildings, some arranged as though on a lane.Other evidence of religious practice includes burials, deposits, and possibly structural features. contained a small cemetery of contracted burials, mostly placed with the heads south, on the right side. The earliest inhabitants of the site were agricultural people who combined hunting and fishing with animal husbandry and the cultivation of crops such as barley, wheat and flax, and would have lived in simple huts built from poles covered with reeds. Later they constructed strong oval houses with mud-covered walls in which a hearth and a stone slab for grinding grain were the main features.
Mesolithic
Period of transition between end of the Ice age and Agricultural revolution., middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago, , between Paleolithic and Neolithic
Mitochondrial DNA ( mitochondrial eve)
A small amount of ___that is located in the _______ of cells. is inherited only through the mother. Can only bepassed from mother to offspring. Took _____ from all females in the world looking for mutation and made a tree and found that the trunk was from african origin. (m ___) lived in africa 200k years ago. _____ states that fully modern humans and Neanderthals did not mate or evole with each other
Mount Sandel
very northern ireland. Mesolithic- 7000bc- earliest occupation in ireland microlith production, fish drying racks, in bluff overlooking
Nabta Playa
Egyptian Western desert early agricultural sites near lake.. is an archaeological site in the western deserts of southern Egypt, where some of the earliest known evidence of domesticated cattle have been identified. The site has three periods of occupation dated to the Early Neolithic (9,800-7,500 BP), Middle Neolithic (7,100-6,700 BP), and Late Neolithic (6,500-4,800 BP). The earliest period (9800-8900 BP) contained gazelle and cattle bones, artifact scatters of stone tools and wasteflakes, and hearths.
Natufian
ancestors of people who turned into farmers, first created agriculture at the fertile crescent
neanderthal man
a type of homo sapien; first to burry the dead (100,000-30,000BC), 70,000 BCE. found in Germany; it's colder there, so they found more remians. They had used fire, and made clothes out of animal skin. They buried their dead in the Fetal position, with artifacts and flowers. This showed that they may have believed in the after life. They were the FIRST homosapians, not found in russia or asia
Neolithic
a period when the hunting and gathering lifestyle gave way to permanent settlements and the tending of plants and animals., the last phase of the Stone Age, marked by the domestication of animals, the development of agriculture, and the manufacture of pottery
Out of Africa Hypothesis
Homo sapiens evolved independently from the other Homo species and did not interbreed with them. Molecular data favors this hypothesis. Fully modern humans evolved only out of Africa 200 thousand years ago (mitochondrial eve)
Pincevent
12,000 BP France archeological site, Although there is evidence that the area was visited throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, the site has become known for its Magdalenian remains, preserved in clays and silts deposited by the river Seine. These remains consist of stone artifacts and bone fragments, as well as numerous hearths, and are considered to point to repeated occupation by reindeer hunters
Shanidar cave
in Iraq-Neanderthal burial site--individual buried in cave with flowers (pollen)
Evidence of compassion--individual was previously horribly wounded, but survived--had to have been taken care of by someone, first time hominid intentially buried thier dead
Star Carr
Found birch and brushwood platform. The mud near the lake good for preserving of fossils. Mesolithic hunters would follow boar and deer and other animals here. Dog remains are evidence of domestication.earliest people in england
had canoes, intentially buried vegitation-to promote grazing of animals, constructed wooden platform around encampment, 21 head dresses made into masks sympathetic majic
Sungir
Russia-upper paleo-beginning of unequal status - burial of three individuals-ahieved ascribed status- man buried with 3000 beads and 2 children 13 year old- 5000 beads ans9 year old-5300 beads in outfit
Tepe Ali Kosh
Neolithic age- Iraq 6600 to 6000 B.C.), evidence of the beginning of plant cultivation, early goat and sheep herding, and the early use of irrigation. phase attests to early civilization is: greater reliance on crops, within an economic structure built around hunting and gathering; greater reliance on domesticated emmer and barley (40%of the seeds recovered in the excavation of _____). The residents of the village also possessed pottery from 6000 to 5500 BC. The residents and the Deh Luran plain also traded with other villages in lower Mesopotamia.
Upper Paleolithic
The last part (10,000 to 40,000 years ago) of the Old Stone Age, featuring tool industries characterized by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms., A culture period usually associated with modern humans, but also found with some Neandertals, and distinguished by technological innovation in carious stone tool industries
Vedbaek
first evidence of warfare 4800 BC-22 individuals are fully expended covered in okra-elderly, woman buried with baby had elaborate belt and baby was buried on swan wing
Venus figurines
Small statuettes of women, exaggerated sexual features, possibly believed to affect fertility. Venus figurines were named after the Roman goddess of love, Venus.- venus of willendorf