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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Unit 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (82)
a North American cereal plant that yields large grains, or kernels, set in rows on a cob. Its many varieties yield numerous products, highly valued for both human and livestock consumption.
solid-hoofed plant-eating domesticated mammal with a flowing mane and tail, used for riding, racing, and to carry and pull loads.
a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
was a labor system in Spain and its empire. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people
was a forerunner of the Triangular Trade System, and resulted in hundreds of thousands of slaves being brought to the New World.
the practice or system of owning slaves.
connection between two landmasses, especially a prehistoric one that allowed humans and animals to colonize new territory before being cut off by the sea, as across the Bering Strait and the English Channel.
belonging to a prehistoric culture centered in the Mississippi valley marked by large conical burial mounds and thought to precede the Hopewell culture though in some areas it lasted later than Hopewell.
Woodland mound builders
were inhabitants of North America who, during a 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes.
member of an American Indian people of Yucatán and adjacent areas
a member of a South American Indian people living in the central Andes before the Spanish conquest.
member of the American Indian people dominant in Mexico before the Spanish conquest of the 16th century.
a conqueror, especially one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico
member of any of the indigenous peoples of the Americas
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima
An island of North Carolina's Outer Banks between Albemarle and Pamlico sounds. Colonists dispatched by Sir Walter Raleigh founded the first English settlement in North America in August 1585 but returned to England the following year.
an instrument containing a magnetized pointer that shows the direction of magnetic north and bearings from it.
as the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural upheaval that splintered Catholic Europe, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era.
An Italian explorer responsible for the European discovery of America in 1492. He had sailed across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain, under the patronage of the king and queen, Ferdinand and Isabella, hoping to find a westward route to India.
Treaty of Tordesillas
The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown
the procuring, transporting, and selling of human beings as slaves, in particular the former trade in African blacks as slaves by European countries and North America.
a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent.
denoting, belonging to, or relating to a family of North American Indian languages formerly spoken across a vast area from the Atlantic seaboard to the Great Lakes and the Great Plains
, was an alliance of five, later six, American Indian tribes—the Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora—located in modern-day New York state.
Samuel de Champlain
known as "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler.
was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States
Bartolome de Las Casas
was a 16th-century Spanish colonist who acted as a historian and social reformer before becoming a Dominican friar.
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
as a Spanish Renaissance humanist, philosopher, theologian, and proponent of colonial slavery.
was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers.
Act of Toleration
was an Act of the Parliament of England, which received the royal assent on 24 May 1689
English clergyman and colonist who was expelled from Massachusetts for criticizing Puritanism; he founded Providence in 1636 and obtained a royal charter for Rhode Island in 1663
Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 15, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
relating to the view that Christians are released by grace from the obligation of observing the moral law.
a form of partial-church membership adopted by the Congregational churches of colonial New England in the 1660s
a member of the Religious Society of Friends, a Christian movement founded by George Fox c. 1650 and devoted to peaceful principles. Central to the Quakers' belief is the doctrine of the "Inner Light," or sense of Christ's direct working in the soul. This has led them to reject both formal ministry and all set forms of worship.
Settlement Of. Founded in 1607, Jamestown, Virginia, was the first English colony to survive into a lasting settlement in what later became the United States.
nglish explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia; was said to have been saved by Pocahontas
one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia
North American Indian princess, daughter of Powhatan, an Algonquian chief in Virginia. According to John Smith, an English colonist, Pocahontas rescued him from death at the hands of her father.
a member of a group of English Protestants of the late 16th and 17th centuries who regarded the Reformation of the Church of England under Elizabeth as incomplete and sought to simplify and regulate forms of worship.
a person who supports the separation of a particular group of people from a larger body on the basis of ethnicity, religion, or gender.
The Mayflower was the ship that brought the Pilgrims to America. It sailed from Southampton, England, on September 16, 1620, with 102 passengers on board. The voyage took 65 days, during which time two people died and one person was born.
, the second permanent English settlement in North America, was founded in 1620 by settlers including a group of religious dissenters commonly referred to as the Pilgrims.
was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England, following Plymouth Colony. ... Winthrop was born into a wealthy landowning and merchant family.
the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
as a British soldier, Member of Parliament, and philanthropist, as well as the founder of the colony of Georgia.
a member of a once-powerful North American Indian people who inhabited the area east of Narragansett Bay from Rhode Island to Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket at the time of the Pilgrim settlement. the Eastern Algonquian speech of the Wampanoag people, a dialect of Massachusett.
King Philip's War
marked the last major effort by the Native Americans of southern New England to drive out the English settlers.
Virgina House of Burgesses
`was the first democratically-elected legislative body in British North America. This group of representatives met from 1619 until 1776. The members, or burgesses, were elected from each county in Virginia with each county sending two burgesses.
was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The fundamental orders describe the government set up by the Connecticut River [New England town|towns]], setting its structure and powers.
a charter colony (as Connecticut or Rhode Island) having a royal charter granted to the inhabitants as a corporate body.
a colony governed directly by the crown through a governor and council appointed by it — compare charter colony, proprietary colony.
Any of certain early North American colonies, such as Carolina and Pennsylvania, organized in the 1600s in territories granted by the English Crown to one or more proprietors who had full governing rights.
a company whose stock is owned jointly by the shareholders.
` joint stock company that was approved by King James I to create new settlements in the colony of Virginia. A joint stock company is a business organization with which investors pooled money in order to purchase stock in a company
belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism.
The Acts of Trade and Navigation were a long series of English laws that developed, promoted and regulated English ships, shipping, trade, and commerce between other countries and with its own colonies
Dominion of New England
King James II tries to tighten his control over the colonies and curve the rights of the people. The significance of this is that the Glorious Revolution puts the end to the Dominion of New England and restores the rights of the people. the dominion of New England and the rights of the people.
were men and women who signed a contract (also known as an indenture or a covenant) by which they agreed to work for a certain number of years in exchange for transportation to Virginia and, once they arrived, food, clothing, and shelter.
originally created in 1618 in Jamestown, Virginia. It was used as a way to attract new settlers to the region and address the labor shortage. With the emergence of tobacco farming, a large supply of workers was needed. New settlers who paid their way to Virginia received 50 acres of land.
the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies
printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics; he helped draw up the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution; he played a major role in the American Revolution and negotiated French support for the colonists; as a scientist he is remembered particularly for his research in electricity
Poor Richard's Almanack
Benjamin Franklin, issued from 1732 to 1757. They contain humor, information, and proverbial wisdom, such as "Early to bed and early to rise / Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise
was the first published African-American female poet. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven or eight and transported to North America.
people allowing other people to think or practice other religions and beliefs
was a series of religious revivals in the North American British colonies during the 17th and 18th Centuries. During these "awakenings," a great many colonists found new meaning (and new comfort) in the religions of the day. Also, a handful of preachers made names for themselves.
was an American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian.
was an English Anglican cleric and evangelist who was one of the founders of Methodism and the evangelical movement
a member of a sect.
self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families. The output is mostly for local requirements with little or no surplus trade
movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society. It is a change in social status relative to one's current social location within a given society.
a class of persons holding exceptional rank and privileges, especially the hereditary nobility. a government or state ruled by an aristocracy, elite, or privileged upper class. government by those considered to be the best or most able people in the state.
John Peter Zenger
American journalist, printer, and publisher, born in Germany: his libel trial and eventual acquittal set a precedent for establishing freedom of the press in America.
a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition
, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government
a British colonial legislature in which at least one half of the members are elected by the people of the colony — compare legislative council 2.
a meeting of the voters of a town for the transaction of public business.
a form of government in which the power of the people is limited to the parameters of a constitution
an American Puritan minister (= church leader) in Boston. He wrote more than 400 works on religion, history, science and other subjects.
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