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Review game for anatomy and physiology

What are the two layers of the dermis called?

Papillary Layer
Reticular Layer

Function of the Papillary layer

supplies nutrients and regulates temperature

Function of the reticular layer

used as connective tissue and gives strength to the skin

Function of the integumentary system

Acts as a barrier to the outside
Eliminates waste, maintains body fluids, protects from disease, and regulates body temperature


A small organ protruding from the dermis that produces hair


A germinal layer of cells responsible for the growth of existing hairs and the production of new hairs when old hairs are shed.

Arrector Pilli Muscle

the growth of existing hairs and the production of new hairs when old hairs are shed. (Also what causes goosebumps)

What are the two types of sweat glands?

Eccrine and Apocrine glands

What is your eccrine gland responsible with?

Your autonomic nervous system stimulates the eccrine glands to secrete fluid onto the surface of your skin, where it cools your body as it evaporates.

What is your apocrine gland responsible for?

They secrete a fatty sweat directly into the tubule of the gland. When you're under emotional stress, the wall of the tubule contracts and the sweat is pushed to the surface of your skin where bacteria begin breaking it down.

Define Cleavage Line

Topological lines drawn on a map of the human body. They were historically defined by the direction in which the skin of a human cadaver will split when struck with a spike. They correspond to the natural orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis, and are generally parallel to the orientation of the underlying muscle fibers.

What are the three types of burns

First degree- burn that affects the epidermis only, causing erythema without blistering.

Second degree burn- a burn that affects the epidermis and the dermis, classified as superficial (involving the epidermis and the papillary dermis) or deep (extending into the reticular dermis).

Third Degree- a burn that destroys both the epidermis and the dermis, often also involving the subcutaneous tissue.

What can UV rays do to the skin?

They induce degenerative changes in cells of the skin, fibrous tissue and blood vessels leading to premature skin aging, photodermatoses and actinic keratoses. Another long-term effect is an inflammatory reaction of the eye. In the most serious cases, skin cancer and cataracts can occur.

Name the five layers of the epidermis and define them

1.stratum basale: deepest layer, growing layer

2.stratum spinosum: immune cells found here

3. Stratum granulosum: makes lots of keratin, most cells no longer divide

4. Stratum lucidum: only found in thick skin

5. Stratum corneum: dead keratinized cells, dander, exposed to outside

Which layer of the epidermis is involved in cell division?

Stratum Basale

Location of the hypo-dermis and its significance

Innermost and thickest layer of skin it acts as an energy reserve (insulates the body with its stores of fat- adipose tissue)


A small crescent-shaped structure or marking, especially the white area at the base of a fingernail that resembles a half-moon.

What are the three parts of the nail?

nail body- the exposed portion of the nail distal to its root.

nail bed- the formative layer of cells underlying the fingernail or toenail.

nail matrix- the area of the corneum on which the nail rests

What does A stand for when looking for skin cancer?

Assymetry-Normal moles or freckles are completely symmetrical. If you were to draw a line through a normal spot, you would have two symmetrical halves. In cases of skin cancer, spots will not look the same on both sides.

What does B stand for when looking for skin cancer?

Border-A mole or spot with blurry and/or jagged edges.

What does C stand for when looking for skin cancer?

Color-A mole that is more than one hue is suspicious and needs to be evaluated by a doctor. Normal spots are usually one color. This can include lightening or darkening of the mole.

What does D stand for when looking for skin cancer?

Diameter-If it is larger than a pencil eraser (about 1/4 inch or 6mm), it needs to be examined by a doctor. This is includes areas that do not have any other abnormalities (color, border, asymmetry).

What does E stand for when looking for skin cancer?

Elevation-Elevation means the mole is raised above the surface and has an uneven surface.

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