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legislation passed that prevented equal rights, almost returned slavery

black codes

tax on a person; don't pay=can't vote

poll tax

To remove officials based on treason, bribery, high crimes, misdemeanor.


1882-1950's no one from China could immigrate to USA.

Chinese Exclusion Act

even immigrants are entitled to equal protection under the law

decision in Yick Wo case

wanted fast, dramatic change in the south-wanted to impeach Andrew Johnson

Radical Republicans

invented barbed wire

Joseph Glidden

invented the reaper- a new way of business- warranty, installment buying- made big farms possible

Cyrus McCormick

designed steel plow-made farming possible in Midwest

John Deere

great general of the Nez Perce Indians

Chief Joseph

he was corrupt, associated with big city, greed and crime, he bought politicians, he was a symbol for the need for reform

Boss Tweed

represents all laws in the south of separation, segregation, and racism

Jim Crow

Radical Republican, abolitionist, hated Andrew Johnson, wrote 14th Amendment, helped write the 15th Amendment.

Thaddeus Stevens

deciding vote to NOT impeach Andrew Johnson

Edmund Ross

cartoonist, showed the real side of Boss Tweed

Thomas Nast

made the subway, reformer, defied corrupt Boss Tweed

Ely Beach

too trusting, "useless", he did damage to the economy, president after Johnson

Ulysses S. Grant

Lincoln's VP, became President after Lincoln was assassinated, stubborn, didn't enforce laws, impeached, but not convicted

Andrew Johnson

abolished slavery

13th Amendment

equal protection under law, made Federal Law supreme, no state can take away unalienable rights

14th Amendment

gave all men over 21 the right to vote

15th Amendment

immigrants from Europe came through here to become citizens

Ellis Island

it provided food, clothing, and education to freed slaves; set up black schools and churches

Freedman's Bureau

legal separation of races


Yankee who went into the south to do business.


first railroad from East to West

Transcontinental Railroad

women's suffrage leader, arrested in NY

Susan B. Anthony

invented light bulb, motion picture, phonograph, telegraph

Thomas Edison

right to vote


he didn't look black, sat on a white railroad car, was arrested; the court decided that "separate but equal" was Constitutional

Homer Plessy

she was against lynching, wrote about it, lived in an integrated town, got on a white railroad car, sued railroads and awarded $500, which they took back; threatened to be lynched for speaking the truth

Ida B. Wells

killing by a mob without due process of law


born into slavery, freed, wanted education, "held back his race," got his own school and taught many, believed in compromising.

Booker T. Washington


to change


to rebuild

founder of the NAACP, first black person to receive a Ph.D from Harvard, didn't believe in compromising, wanted full equality for blacks, nothing less would do.

W.E.B Dubois

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