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Terms in this set (55)
What is another word for Acquired Immunity?
What drives the Adaptive Immune Response by stimulating B-Lymphocytes & T-Lymphocytes?
Antigens are captured, processed, & presented to what?
Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs), MHC Molecules, B Lymphocytes, T Lymphocytes
Besides Antigens, what are the essential components for an Acquired Immune Response? (4)
T-Cell Receptor (TCR)
Example of receptor on specific T-Lymphocytes generated that can bind the antigen of interest
B-Cell Receptor (BCR)
What does BCR stand for?
Antibody, TCR, BCR, MHC Molecules
What molecules can the antigen interact with? (4)
The ability of an antigen to BIND with immune components (i.e. Ab, BCR, TCR)
Ability of an antigen to INDUCE an immune response
A good Immunogen should exceed how many Daltons?
Carbohydrates, Plastics, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
What molecules usually make POOR Immunogens? (4)
Proteins, Glycoproteins, Bacterial LPS
What molecules are usually GOOD Immunogens? (3)
What are methods for "fixing" easily degraded proteins to slow down degradation & improve immunogenicity? (2)
What type of proteins make the best Antigens?
Epitopes (antigenic determinant sites)
Portion of the immunogenic molecule which actually binds with antibody or BCR or TCR
Epitopes that can involve elements of primary, secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structure
What are protein epitopes referred to as if their recognition is dependent on the correct folding?
Protein epitopes recognized by their amino acid sequence (primary protein structure)
What is another word for conformational epitope?
Yersinia enterocolitica may provoke cattle to make antibodies that cross-react with what pathogenic bacteria? (genus & species)
Antibodies against foreign antigens without any known previous infection, vaccination, other foreign antigen exposure or immunization
Cross Reactivity (bacterial or food antigens)
Why do most Natural Antibodies probably arise?
Blood group in pigs that develop antibodies that react with red cells from pigs of blood group "A" through exposure to glycoproteins (gp) in intestinal bacteria
Small molecules that are antigenic but are not immunogenic in vivo UNLESS they are bound to a carrier protein
Example of Hapten that when bound to albumin can in some animals elicit an immune response
Example of Hapten that is toxin found in poison ivy
What type of molecules are MOST Microbial Antigens?
What type of microbes are usually Extracellular Pathogens? (2)
Viruses (also obligate intracellular bacteria)
What type of microbes are usually Intracellular Pathogens?
"Extracellular" vs. "Intracellular Pathogen" refers to what action inside OR outside of the host cell?
What does the location of antigenic microbial molecule production dictate?
Antigen made by the pathogen outside any host cell
Antigen made by the intracellular pathogen inside a host cell
Is Mycobacterium bovis usually an exogenous or endogenous antigen?
A LIVE, attenuated, non-encapsulated vaccine form for Bacillus anthracis is used for what species?
A culture filtrate, avirulent, non-encapsulated strain of Bacillus anthracis is usually used for vaccination of what species?
Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus equi, Listeria monocytogenes, Brucella abortus
Examples of bacteria that can replicate INSIDE macrophages & produce ENDOGENOUS antigens (4)
Capsid Protein (Core)
What viral structure makes a good immunogen?
Viral structure composed of lipoproteins and glycoproteins often derived from host membrane as virus leaves the cell
Cytosol (NOT phagosomes)
Where does viral contents go once it enters the cell via surface molecules?
Term for viral progeny that eventually leave the infected cell to infect other cells
Types of immune cells that can kill virally infected host cells (2)
Molecule that can target extracellular viruses if present & is an important immune response for protection against rabies
Extracellular virus that cannot survive long outside of the animal host but once it infects an animal it exists extracellular for some time before it reaches the nervous tissue and infects nerve cells
Nonmicrobial Antigens (Cell Surface Antigens)
Molecules expressed on the surface of normal cells that in another animal could stimulate an immune response
Blood Group Antigens, MHC Molecules, CD Molecules
What are examples of Nonmicrobial Antigens (Cell Surface Antigens)? (3)
Blood Group Antigens
Glycoproteins of glycolipids on the surface of red blood cells
Cluster of Differentiation
What does CD stand for in CD molecules?
MHC molecules that can be induced to be expressed on ALL nucleated cells
MHC molecules that are only expressed on Antigen Presenting Cells
Cluster of Differentiation (CD Molecules)
Method for naming molecules on the surface of immune cells where each molecule denotes a protein with a specific function
CD molecule expressed by a subset of T-lymphocytes that have a "helper" function
CD molecule expressed on a subset of T-lymphocytes that "kill" abnormal cells
CD molecule expressed on a number of different types of cells whose function is to bind IL-2
IL-2R (Interleukin-2 Receptor)
What is CD25 also called?
Recommended textbook explanations
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
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Principles of Life
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AP Biology 1 Student Workbook
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