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Cell Mediated Immunity (8)
Terms in this set (91)
Which T lymphocytes mediate Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH)? (give CD)
Natural Killer Cells, Neutrophils, Macrophages
Which cells of the innate immune system participate in CMI? (3)
What are the ONLY APCs that can activate Naive T-Cells?
How many signs for activation do Naive-T cells need?
Which cytokine is T-cell proliferation dependent on?
How do CD4+ Th-1 cells "see" antigen on an APC?
How do CD8+ T cells "see" antigen on a target cell?
During the Primary CMI Response, how long do T Cells divide to generate clones of progeny Memory T Cells & Effector T Cells?
During the Primary CMI Response, how many times do T-cells divide a day?
Memory T Cells, Effector T Cells
What type of cells are produced during the Primary CMI response? (2)
CTLs (CD8+), T Helper Cells (CD4+)
What types of Effector T Cells are produced from the Primary CMI Response? (2)
CMI response where antigen has been seen before, effector T cells have less stringent requirements for activation, & express more adhesion molecules
Macrophages, B Cells
In additional to Dendritic Cells, what type of cells can activate T Cells during the Secondary CMI Response? (2)
What type of molecules are expressed MORE by the memory & effector T cells in a SECONDARY CMI Response?
Memory T Cells
What type of T Cells are long-lived and resting until they interact with antigen presented by APCs a second or subsequent time?
Th1 dominated response primarily promotes what type of immune response?
Th2 dominated response primarily promotes what type of immune response?
What species were used to first define the Th subsets?
Intracellular protozoa susceptible in certain mice strains used to first define the T-Helper subsets
T-helper subset associated with mice mounting a strong antibody response to Leishmania major but not clearing the infection & dying
T-helper subset associated with mice resistant to Leishmania major that were able to mount a strong CMI response & clear the infection
IL-2, Interferon-y, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)
What are the main cytokines produced by Th-1 Lymphocytes? (3)
What is inhibited by Th-1 Lymphocytes?
What cells are activated by Th-1 Lymphocytes? (2)
Opsonizing Antibody, Complement Binding Antibody
What types of antibodies can Th-1 Lymphocytes help B cells make? (2)
FcR, Complement Receptor
What type of receptors can be recognized by phagocytic cells once antibody or complement proteins coat an infected cell? (2)
What type of T-Helper Cells help B-Cells make antibody that help to eliminate intracellular pathogens?
Antibody Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity (ADCC)
Process that helps to eliminate intracellular pathogens via antibody binding the infected cell and tagging it for other cells to kill
IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10
What are the main cytokines produced by Th-2 Lymphocytes? (4)
What type of antibodies do Th-2 Lymphocytes promote B cells to make?
IgE, IgA, IgG
What major antibody subclasses are neutralizing antibody? (3)
What type of T-Helper Cells help B-Cells make antibody that help to eliminate extracellular pathogens?
What type of immune response is required to fight off an intracellular bacterium, protozoa, or virus?
T Cells, B Cells, NKCs
What are the major target cells of IL-2? (3)
Growth, Differentiation, Proliferation
What are the major functions of IL-2? (3)
What is the major target cell of IL-4?
What are the major functions of IL-4? (2)
What is the major target cell of IL-5?
Proliferation, Differentiation, Promotes IgA Synthesis
What are the major functions of IL-5? (3)
Th1, NKCs, Macrophages, B Cells
What are the major target cells of IFN-y? (4)
What does IFN-y stimulate Th1 to produce? (2)
What type of assay is replacing the TB skin test in humans?
Th1 CD4+, CTLs, Macrophages, DTH
What components are required for the elimination of intracellular or cell-associated pathogens? (4)
CTL-Precursor that eventually becomes a CTL?
What components are required for Signal 1 activating CTLs? (2)
What component is required for Signal 2 activating CTLs?
What cytokines are required for proliferation & differentiation into CTLs? (2)
What molecules do activated CTLs use to bind tightly to their target cell?
What molecule on the target cell are the TCR-CD3-CD8 molecules of activated CTLs interacting with?
Peptide (from endogenous antigen)
What do MHC-I molecules of target cell interacting with TCR-CD3-CD8 of activated CTL contain?
How do both major pathways of CTLs kill target cells?
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH Reaction)
Type of cell-mediated immune response that occurs after prior sensitization and begins 24-48 hours after sensitized individual is challenged with the microbial antigen
In a DTH reaction, how long does it take for the circulating, memory, antigen-specific Th1 CD4+ T-Helper Cells to home in on the site of antigen challenge and respond to an antigen?
Th1 Cells (CD4+)
What is the DTH reaction mediated by?
What is the primary cytokine made by Th1 cells that activates macrophages in the DTH reaction?
In the DTH reaction, what is activated by cytokines to kill pathogens & release their own chemokines?
What type of cells can the chemokines released by macrophages in the DTH reaction be chemotactic for?
What type of cells produce cytokines that down-regulate the DTH reaction?
What primary cytokines are produced by Th2 Cells that inhibit further macrophage activation & terminate the DTH reaction? (2)
T Cells, Dead Cells, Macrophages, Neutrophils, Edema, Fibrin, Fibroblasts
What does the tissue reaction/inflammation from a DTH reaction consist of? (7)
Term for delayed local inflammatory reaction when a skin TB test is conducted
Granulomas that form weeks after living Mycobacterium bacilli invade tissues & macrophages accumulate in large numbers
Allergic Contact Dermatitis, Tuberculin Test
What are 2 examples of DTH?
Bovine Caudal Fold (TB Test)
What is the tuberculin test in cattle called?
Th1 Cells (CMI)
What type of cells are we testing for in a Tuberculin Test?
Purified Protein Derivative (PPD)
Proteins common to all Mycobacterium that are injected intra-dermally (ID) in a tuberculin skin test
In a TB test, how long after PPD is injected should the site be examined for swelling?
Does a positive caudal fold TB test mean that the cow was exposed to M. bovis?
Comparative Cervical Test
What test is performed by federal veterinarians to differentiate b/w Mycobacterium species if a caudal fold TB test is positive?
What species of Mycobacterium is a BIG DEAL if is comes up positive on a Comparative Cervical Test? (genus & species)
What is the PPD injected into the skin of a TB test picked up & processed by?
Memory CD4, Th1 Cells
What cells will primarily be circulating if species was exposed to some kind of Mycobacterium organism? (2)
BCG Vaccine, Cross Reactivity (similar antigen that stimulated CD4 Th1 Cells)
What are possible reasons for a false-positive TB skin test reaction in humans? (2)
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
Modified live strain of M. bovis used to vaccinate humans against Mycobacterium tuberculosis used in Europe, Caribbean, Asia, Middle East, Asia (NOT USA)
What mycobacteria species can people be exposed to that will produce a false-positive TB test b/c of cross-reactivity? (genus abbreviated)
With in how many days should a positive Caudal Fold be re-tested with Comparative Cervical Test?
If a Comparative Cervical Test is not performed with in 10 days of a positive Caudal Fold Test, how many days is required to wait until CD4 T Cells generated by PPD injection won't interfere with Comparative Cervical Test?
Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA)
Blood test for TB infections in humans
What type of sample is being tested in an IFN-g Release Assay?
T Lymphocytes, APCs
What does the whole blood sample being tested contain that is of interest in an IFN-g Release Assay? (2)
M. tuberculosis Antigen
What is added to the whole blood sample when culturing in vitro in an IFN-g Release Assay?
In an Interferon Gamma Release Assay, what are TB-specific memory T-Lymphocytes producing in response to TB antigens that will be measured?
Blood from Known Negative
What is the best negative control to use in an IFN-g Release Assay?
Blood from Known Positive
What is used as a positive control in an IFN-g Release Assay?
Positive, Negative, Indeterminate
What are the 3 qualitative results possible in an IFN-g Release Assay?
T Cells Making IFN-g, IFN-g
What can quantitative results of IFN-g Release Assay measure the amount of? (2)
Exposure (NOT necessarily current infx)
What does a POSITIVE IFN-g Release Assay indicate?
What type of immune response would you rather have if you were exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Leishmania, Mycobacterium lapromae, Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, HIV
Examples of infections that require a good Th1 CMI Response & the balance b/w Th1 & Th2 determine the severity of disease (4)
CD4+ T Cells
What type of cells are infected & killed by HIV?
What type of cells lose function in AIDS?
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