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B Lymphocytes & Antibody (9)
Terms in this set (87)
MHC, TCR, BCR, Antibody
What are the molecules that can bind antigen? (4)
Molecules that bind peptides from processed antigens & present them to T-Lymphocytes
Surface receptor that binds its specific antigen in the context of an MHC molecule (or APC)
Surface receptor that binds its specific antigen free in solution
What will activate a naive (but mature) B-Cell to replicate & differentiate into a Plasma Cell?
Fab (Variable Region)
Which region of the antibody molecule will be identical between all progeny of a particular B-Cell? (NEVER CHANGES*)
Process where variable region of the antibody (Fab) is joined to a different constant region, producing different classes of antibody
No (antigen specificity of progeny always identical)
Will class switching of cells from the same progeny have variable antigen specificity if they have variable antibody classes?
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD
What are the major classes of antibody? (5)
What antibody feature can INCREASE as B cells continue to make antibody?
What antibody feature between progeny will ALWAYS remain the same?
What type of antibodies are present whenever we have an immune response in any living animal?
Antibodies derived from a single clone or its daughter cell that are all identical and can ONLY be made in a laboratory
Result produced in lab when producing designer MoAbs when fusing plasma cells that make Ab to ONE epitope with a cancer B cell
Blood with cells and clotting factors removed
What type of sample do we usually evaluate for antibody?
What are proteins in serum separated by in Electrophoresis?
What do immunoglobulins (Ig) migrate towards in electrophoresis?
Gamma (IgA, IgM, IgG)
Which globulin fraction contains most antibodies?
What does a high globulin fraction usually indicate?
Which region of the antibody is responsible for biological activity? ***
Which region of the antibody determines the antigen specificity? ***
What is the Fc Region of the Antibody also referred to as?
Which region of the antibody determines the CLASS of the antibody?
Aggregation, Opsonization, Neutralization, Mast Cell Degranulation, ADCC
What are some major antibody functions? (5)
Process where antigens become insoluble due to antibody binding and formation of complexes
Antibody forms a bridge between antigen or pathogen & phagocyte, which facilitates phagocytosis
Where is most IgG found?
Which antibody class helps mediate Mast Cell Degranulation?
What is the MAIN antibody of the SECONDARY RESPONSE?
Can IgG leave blood easily?
Which antibody class has the highest concentration in the colostrum? ***
What is the FIRST antibody made as primary immune response develops? ***
No (Size limits)
Can IgM penetrate tissues easily?
Where is IgM confined to? (2)
What can high levels of IgM indicate clinically?
Which antibody class is better at agglutinating/aggregating?
What cells do NOT have Fc Receptors for IgM?
What antibody function can not be performed by IgM?
Complement Proteins (NOT via FcR)
What can IgM bind to to perform opsonization?
Where is the monomeric form of IgA found?
Form of IgA involved in mucosal transport and protection at the mucosal surfaces
Which antibody plays an important role in mucosal protection? ***
What is one of the main antibodies in MILK that is protective to newborn?
Milk, Tears, Saliva, Bile
Where can the dimeric form of IgA be found? (4)
Mast Cells, Eosinophils, Basophils
What cells do IgE bind Fc Receptors on to trigger signals? (3)
What is triggered when antigen binds IgE that is bound to a Mast Cell? ***
Example of one of the main inflammatory molecules released by Mast Cells or Eosinophils that are triggered by IgE bound to their surface
Which antibody class mediates Type I Hypersensitivity reactions?
Which antibody class is largely responsible for immunity to parasitic worms?
What part of the antibody molecule binds the mast cell?
Vasoactive amine that causes smooth muscle contraction & increases vascular permeability, which can help propel parasites out of GI tract but also cause adverse reactions like allergies
What does the route for B cell activation depend on?
Thymus Dependent (TD), Thymus Independent (TI)
What are the 2 different types of antigens that can activate B cells?
TD Antigens (Thymus Dependent)
Antigens that require help (direct contact) from T-Helper Cells to activate a B-cell
TD Antigens (Thymus Dependent)
What type of antigens can evoke an immunological memory with induction of class switching?
Opsonizing, Complement Binding
What type of antibodies do Th1 cytokines (IF-2, IFN-y) facilitate B-cells to produce? (2)
Neutralizing (to extracellular microbes & toxins)
What type of antibodies do Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6) facilitate B-cells to produce?
Which T-helper response can result in LOTS of antibody when it is strong?
TI Antigens (Thymus Independent)
Antigens that can activate B-cells via the BCR without T-cell contact
What is the ONLY antibody class produced from a humoral response to TI antigens? ***
TI Antigens (Thymus Independent)
What type of antigens only involve a primary response & there is no class switching or memory cells generated?
How do TD antigens interact with Th cells to result in class switching? (via what molecules?) (2)
Cytokines, Repetition (secondary immune responses)
What is class switching driven by? (2)
Secondary Immune Response (Humoral)
What does generation of Memory B Cells allow for?
Phase of Primary Antibody Response where antigen is recognized by naive B cell, proliferates, & differentiates to start making antibody
Phase of Primary Antibody Response where antibody concentrations increase as more plasma cells appear
Phase of Primary Antibody Response where there is a steady state between antibody synthesis and antibody degradation
Phase of Primary Antibody Response where antibody degradation exceeds synthesis
Which phase of a Secondary Antibody Response will be much shorter compared to a Primary Antibody Response?
Which phase of a Secondary Antibody Response will be more rapid & HIGHER (100-1,000x) compared to a Primary Antibody Response?
Which phase of a Secondary Antibody Response will not be as rapid with antibody persisting for months to years compared to a Primary Antibody Response?
What is another term used for Secondary Antibody Response?
Major class of antibody produced in primary antibody response that does not persist
IgG, IgA, IgE
Major classes of antibody produced in secondary antibody response that usually persist (3)
How many days after a dog is given a rabies vaccine is he considered protected?
What can be measured that will help you determine whether you have a primary or secondary immune response?
5-10 days (usually)
How long is the lag phase of a primary immune response after immunization?
1-3 days (usually)
How long is the lag phase of a secondary immune response after immunization?
Which immune response has a larger peak response & higher average antibody affinity?
What region of an antibody usually binds to phagocytes to facilitate opsonization?
What type of extracellular pathogens can neutralizing antibodies bind to to inhibit their effects? (2)
Which class of antibody is primarily involved in attaching to pathogens to prevent them from binding to epithelial surfaces?
IgG (some IgA)
Which class of antibody is mainly involved in ADCC?
Which classes of antibody are involved in Complement Activation? (2) ***
Term for immune response's ability to control infection, whether this results in sterile immunity or controlling infection but not eliminating the infectious agent
Term for organism being totally gone
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