AP COGO vocabulary
Terms in this set (66)
A regime of command and control by the ruler of the government. The government is fully controlled by the ruler. In contrast with a totalitarian state, some social and economic institutions exist outside of government control.
A legislature that comprises two parts or chambers. The USA Congress is a bicameral legislature; its two chambers are the House of Representatives and the Senate. Compare with unicameral legislature.
A organization structured hierarchically, in which lower-level officials are charged with administering regulations codified in rules that specify impersonal, objective guidelines for making decisions
Checks and balances
A government system divide authority in which coequal branches can restrain each other's actions.
Those personal freedoms that are protected for all individuals against the government.
In the USA, the rights rooted in the Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection under the law.
refers to voluntary organizations outside the state that help people define and advance their own interests - usually very strong in liberal democratizes where individual freedoms are valued and protected. Authoritarian states feel that their power is threatened by citizens participating in this.
division in a society that
causes people within that society to support different sides of an issue, support a particular political party, or vote differently.
A voluntary association of states; usually limits central authority to foreign affairs and is less permanent than a federation. A political system where states or regional governments retain ultimate authority, except for powers expressly delegated to a central government.
A right-wing approach that minimizes national government help of individuals and promotes traditional values and lifestyles. Thus Conservatism opposes change unless it reduces government support of individuals or regresses to even more traditional values and lifestyles than are in place.
Coup d' etat
A forceful, extra-constitutional action resulting in the removal of an existing government.
A system of government where political decisions are made by the people directly, rather than by their elected representatives.
Democratic consolidation is the process by which a new democracy matures, in a way that means it is unlikely to revert to authoritarianism
the introduction of a democratic system or democratic principles.
A system of government in which the sovereign central government devolves (delegates) power to regional governments.
Process by which government involvement in the economy decreases; individuals and businesses have more freedom
The agencies of government that implements or executes policy.
A totalitarian system of government developed in Italy in 1919 by the Fascist led by Benito Mussolini, in opposition to Socialism and Communism. Fascism
A political system in which authority is shared between a central government and a state or regional government./An association of states; usually more permanent than a confederation. A political system where states or regional governments retain ultimate authority, except for powers expressly delegated to a central government.
The establish form of rule and ultimate authority within a society or a nation. The institution that has authority and that makes decisions to resolve conflicts or allocate benefits and privileges.
head of government
The person in effective charge of the executive branch of government; the prime minister in a parliamentary system
head of state
An individual who represents the state but does not exercise political power.
elections are not free, fair, or competitive, and/or political liberties such as free speech and press are not respected.
1 Elections without protections of civil liberties and/or human rights
2 A lack of independent judiciaries
3 Small or weak civil societies
4 Large-scale disenfranchisement, often along racial or ethnic cleavages
is when citizens elect representatives to make laws for them.
Groups which are closely associated with the government and act internally to influence public decisions.
Organizations that seek to represent the interests—usually economic—of their members in dealings with the government. Important examples are associations representing people with specific occupations, business interests, racial and ethnic groups, or age groups in society.
The ability of the high court to nullify actions by the executive and legislative branches when it judges that they violate the constitution.
One of the primary political institutions in a country; responsible for the administration of justice and in some countries for determining the constitutionality of state decisions.
That part of government primarily responsible for making laws.
Acceptance by the citizens of the right and power of a government or ruler to exercise authority.
Democratic government that provides for the protection of individual human rights, in order to prevent a majority from oppressing a minority.
Advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, support for civil rights, and tolerance for political and social change.
U.K. that formed a coalition with the Conservatives in 2010; supports the Alternative Vote Plan (ranked-choice voting)
A large aggregation or agglomeration of people sharing a common and distinctive racial, linguistic, historical and/or cultural heritage that has led its members to think of themselves as belonging to a valued natural community sharing a common destiny that ought to be preserved forever.
Distinct, politically defined territory in which the state and national identity coincide.
The involuntary transfer of ownership of a private business or other private property to a national government, either through uncompensated seizure (expropriation) or through forced sale at a government-determined price.
Representative democracy where political power is vested in an elected legislature. Used in most European countries.
Partizanship [AGBV, 2005].
patron-client system / patron-clientelism
can be defined as a mutual arrangement between a person that has authority, social status, wealth, or some other personal resource (patron) and another who benefits from their support or influence
Beliefs and attitudes of a community or nation toward government and the political process.
Citizens' level of faith that they can understand & influence political affairs
are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order.
the loosening of government controls. Although sometimes associated with the relaxation of laws relating to social matters such as abortion and divorce, liberalization is most often used as an economic term. In particular, it refers to reductions in restrictions on international trade and capital.
The process by which citizens learn political attitudes and form opinions about social issues. Important forces in this process are the family and the educational system.
Representative democracy where political power is vested in separately elected and appointed branches of national government. This system is used in the USA.
The sale of government-owned assets or activities to the private sector.
The practice where authorities take race into account in determining whether a person should be questioned or investigated for past or possibly future criminal activities
A reactionary is a person who holds political views that favor a return to the status quo ante, the previous political state of society
Legislative or constitutional measures referred by the legislature to the voters for approval or disapproval.
means improving the laws and constitutions in accordance with expectations of the public. or means evolving such an electoral system by which gentility could be empowered in the state machinery.
A form of government in which sovereignty rests with the people (or a portion of the people), as opposed to a king or monarch or dictator. This form of Representative Democracy was created by the framers of the US constitution.
is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression
rule of law
Belief that all actions, of individuals and governments, are subject to an institutionalized set of rules and regulations.
Public collective ownership and control of the means of production, distribution, and exchange.
Also viewed as a political ideology based on strong support for economic and social equality, in a society where major businesses are taken over by the government or by employee cooperatives.
Also see Communism.
seperation of powers
The division of governmental functions and powers among different branches of government, so that the various self-interests of each group would moderate those of the others.
he highest or supreme political authority
A group of people occupying a particular region and organized under a single government; a nation or a subunit of a nation.
Rule by a god, which in practice means rule by a priesthood. No separation of church and state. Compare with aristocracy
A regime of command by the government and obedience by the citizens. The regime controls all aspects of political and social life (as in George Orwell's 1984). In contrast with an authoritarian state, all social and economic institutions are under government control.
the condition of being transparent.
A legislature that comprises a single part or chamber. In the USA (early 21st century) only the state of Nebraska has a unicameral legislature. Compare with bicameral legislature.
A centralized governmental system where local or regional governments exercise only the powers that the central government gives them.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
A process of conflict resolution in which support is mobilized and maintained for collective action
The system and the rules and laws in place in a particular territory at a particular time.
A voting system where the whole state is just one electorate and parties win seats in proportion to the total votes they receive in an election. Hybrid systems often exist where the state is divided up into a number of multi-member electorates whereby seats won are approximately proportional to the votes cast.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
American Government - Your Voice, Your Future | Matthew Kerbel
Government chapter 1 vocab terms
American Government and Politics Today Chapter 1
Ch. 1 Gov vocab
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Unit 5 - Lastimo/Duele
Unit 4: ¿Como eras de niño?