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Midterm A Study Guide: Connective Tissue
Terms in this set (41)
List the general characteristics connective tissue
-cells: each type of connective tissue contains specific types of cells
-protein fibers: most connective tissues contain protein fibers throughout to strengthen and support it(3 types: collagen, elastic, reticular)
-ground substance: non-living material produced by the connective tissue cells that consists of protein and carbohydrate molecules and variable amounts of water
List the general functions of connective tissue
-physical protection: bones and fat protects organs (ex: kidneys, cranium,sternum)
-support and structural framework: bones provide framework for adult body and support the soft tissues; cartilage support trachea, bronchi, ears, nose; connective tissue sheets form capsules to support body organs(spleens, kidneys)
-binding of structures: ligaments bind bone to bone; tendons bind muscle to bone; dense irregular CT binds skin to underlying bone and muscle
-storage: fat is major energy reserve in body; bone is reservoir for calcium and phosphorus
-transport: blood carries nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, and blood cells to different regions in body
-immune protection: many CTs contain white blood cells to protect body
List the 3 major types of connective tissue(exclude blood) and distinguish between them in terms of their respective ground substances. Give examples of each.
1. cartilage: limited ground substance and can range from semisolid to a flexible matrix (ear and nose)
2. bone: made up of collagen fibers and has rigid, calcified ground substance (compact and spongy bone)
3. CTP: liquid ground substance
Describe the chemical composition of liquid ground substance
amorphous gelatinous material; transparent, colourless, and fills the spaces between fibres and cells; consists of large molecules called glycosoaminoglycans (GAGs) which link together to form even larger molecules called proteoglycans
List the 3 fiber types found in connective tissue and give the structural and functional properties of each fiber type
structure-long, unbranched extracellular fibers composed of protein collagen; strong, flexible, resistant to stretching
function-provides strength and cushioning to many different areas of the body, including the skin, tendons, ligaments
structure-contain the protein elastin; thinner than collagen; stretch easily, branch, rejoin, and appear wavey
function-permit the skin, lungs, and arteries to return to their normal shape after being stretched
structure-thinner than collagen; branching, interwoven framework that is tough but flexible; abundant in the stroma
function-mesh like arrangements permits them to physically support organs and resist external forces that could damage organ's cells and blood vessels
Compare the properties and appearance of elastic fibers to collagen fibers
-collagen resistant to stretching but elastic stretches easily
-elastic is thinner than collagen
-elastic fibers have a coiled structure for stretching and recoiling
-collagen forms about 25% of body's protein
-fresh elastic fibers appear yellow-ish
-in fresh tissues, collagen fibers appear white
Give 3 locations where elastic fibers can be found.
Give 1 type of structure in the body where elastic fiber comprises approximately 99% of that structure.
Name 1 structure of body composed of over 90% collagen fiber?
Compare the properties and appearance of reticular fibers to collagen and elastic fibers.
What functions do reticular fiber serve in the lymph node? (Name 2 other organs with an abundance of reticular fibers.)
List the 5 types of connective tissue proper (CTP) and give locations for each type
1. Areolar Connective Tissue-surrounding neerves, vessels; subcutaneous layer
2. Adipose Connective Tissue-subcutaneous layer; surrounding kidney and selected other organs
3. Reticular Connective Tissue-stroma of spleen, liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow
4. Dense Regular Connective Tissue-tendons, ligaments
5. Dense Irregular Connective Tissue-dermis, capsules of organs
Give the functional properties of liquid ground substance. What is the great functional advantage of liquid ground substance in the loose areolar connective tissue immediately deep to lining epithelia?
Function of fibroblasts. What fiber types do they produce? What other molecules in the ground substance do fibroblasts produce?
-maintain the structural integrity of connective tissues by continuously secreting precursors of the extracellular matrix
-Fibroblasts produce tropocollagen, which is the forerunner of collagen, and ground substance, an amorphous gel-like matrix that fills the spaces between cells and fibres in connective tissue
What are mesenchymal cells? What cell types can mesenchymal cells differentiate into? What factors determine the direction of differentiation of mesenchymal cells?
Describe histological structure and function of loose areolar c.t. Identify all cells, fibers, and ground substance found in loose areolar c.t.
Are blood vessels and nerves found in loose areolar c.t.?
What major function does the liquid ground substance serve in loose areolar c.t. ?
ensures that this type of CT can be distorted without damage
Give 4 generalized locations where loose areolar c.t. can be found in the body.
-individual muscle cells
Function of mesenchymal cells. What specific CTP is the cell type found in? What specific tissues can this cell be found in?
Function of fibroblasts. What specific CTP is the cell type found in? What specific tissues can this cell be found in?
-responsible for making the extracellular matrix and collagen; forms the structural framework of tissues in animals and plays an important role in tissue repair
Function of mast cells. What specific CTP is the cell type found in? What specific tissues can this cell be found in?
Function of microphages. What specific CTP is the cell type found in? What specific tissues can this cell be found in?
Function of lymphocytes. What specific CTP is the cell type found in? What specific tissues can this cell be found in?
Function of plasma cells. What specific CTP is the cell type found in? What specific tissues can this cell be found in?
Describe process of inflammation
1. Vasodilation: leads to greater blood flow to the area of inflammation, resulting in redness and heat.
2. Vascular permeability: endothelial cells become "leaky" from either direct endothelial cell injury or via chemical mediators.
3. Exudation: fluid, proteins, red blood cells, and white blood cells escape from the intravascular space as a result of increased osmotic pressure extravascularly and increased hydrostatic pressure intravascularly
4. Vascular stasis: slowing of the blood in the bloodstream with vasodilation and fluid exudation to allow chemical mediators and inflammatory cells to collect and respond to the stimulus.
Identify 4 clinical signs of inflammation and factors and processes that produce each 1 of the 4 clinical signs
Describe the structure and function of the adipocyte
-structure: filled with 1 lipid droplet
-function: fuel tank for the storage of lipids and triglycerides.
How is adipose tissue the same as loose areolar c.t.? How is it different?
Is adipose tissue vascularized
YES! highly vascular
Give 3 major locations of adipose tissue in the body
-fat capsule surrounding kidney
-pericardial and abdominopelvic cavities
Describe the histological structure of dense regular c.t. How does its structure relate to its function?
Identify 3 specific structures in the body composed of dense regular c.t.
Identify all the cell types found in dense regular c.t. and give the function of each
Describe the composition and function of the ground substance. Is this tissue vascularized? Is it innervated
Why is dense regular c.t. so slow to heal when injured?
it has few blood vessels and a rich blood supply is necessary for good healing
Describe the histological structure of dense irregular c.t. How does its structure relate to its function?
Identify 1 major organ layer in the body composed of dense irregular c.t.
Identify all the cell types found in dense irregular c.t. and give the function of each
Describe the composition and function of the ground substance of dense irregular c.t. Is this tissue vascularized? Is it innervated?
Describe the histological structure of reticular connective tissue. Give 2 organs where this tissue is found in the body. How does its structure serve the functions of these 2 organs?
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