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41 terms

Leukopoiesis

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Myeloblast
produces all granulocytes
Monoblast
produces monocytes
Lymphoblast
produces the lymphocytes (T cells and B cells)
When is the rate of leukopoiesis accelerated?
during periods of stress
What accelerates the rate of leukopoiesis during periods of stress?
Colony Stimulating Factors and Interleukins
Which is faster--leukopoiesis or erythropoiesis?
erythropoiesis
Characteristics of all leukocytes
All contain a nucleus, exhibit diapedesis (emmigration), perform some immune function
Neutrophil
the most numerous of WBCs, granular leukocyte, phagocytic
What granules and granule materials do neutrophils contain?
Lysozyme, substrate enzymes, oxidizing enzymes, and defensins
lysozyme
enzyme-like material, works against membrane components--peptidoglycan; used inside the cell and also secreted.
substrate enzymes
hydrolyzes organic molecules; used inside the cell.
oxidizing enzymes
oxidizes complex organic molecules (myeloperoxidose); used inside the cell.
defensin
antibody-like material which will lyse foreign cells.
What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?
Between a few hours and 14 days
What are the characteristics of Eosinophils?
uncommon WBC (2-4%), granular leukocyte, slightly phagocytic
What do the granules in eosinophils mostly contain?
antihistamines
What three specific events can activate an eosinophil?
presence of eosinophil chemotaxic factor (most common mechanism); presence of an antibody label antigen; parasitic infection
Eosinophil chemotaxic factor
released by basophils when histamine is released.
antibody label antigen
promote phagocytosis during a systemic immune reaction
parasitic infection
liberates cytokines and promotes phagocytosis
basophil
uncommon WBC (1-3%), granular leukocyte, not phagocytic
Basophil granules contain inflammatory agents such as:
histamine, heparin, serotonin
eosinophil chemotaxic factor
cytokines used to regulate the effects of the inflammatory agents
What do basophils do?
promote blood flow to affected tissue
What substances may enhance basophil activity?
the IgE antibody and histamine from other cells
What are the two types of agranulocytes?
Monocytes, lymphocytes
monocytes
Monocytes are phagocytic and may exhibit a great deal of specialization vesicles: phagosomes, lysosomes, peroxiosomes
NLMEB
Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas: Neutrophil, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, Eosinophil, Basophil
What are the three types of lymphocytes?
Natural Killer Cells, B-cells, T-cells
Natural Killer Cells
The least specialized of the lymphocytes, used to destroy cells lacking the correct self cell codes (glycocalyx codes).
B-cells
involved in the immune response
What are three types of B-cells?
Plasma cells, antigen presenting cells, and memory B-cells.
antigen
immune-generating foreign entity
pathogen
disease-causing antigen
Antigen Presenting Cell
any phagocytic cell that will disassemble an antigen, form a safe copy of it, then initiate an immune response.
T-cells
the most widely distributed lymphocyte. The T-cells will also differentiate, forming specialized cells during an immune response.
Which leukocytes function in acquired immunity and which leukocytes function in innate immunity?
Lymphocytes are used for protection in acquired immunity. All other leukocytes provide protection in innate immunity.
What do plasma cells do?
secrete antibodies
What do Antigen Presenting Cells do?
digest then present antigen for the stimulation of an immune response
What do Memory B-cells do?
recognize previous antigens
What do Natural Killer Cells secrete?
NK cells secrete perforin, which punctures the cell membrane.