44 terms

Unit 1 Chemistry of Life

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Atom
Basic unit of matter
Ion
An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
chemical compound
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
Molecule
smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound
ionic bond
chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
covalent bond
type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared
Matter
Anything that has mass and takes up space
atomic mass
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
Proton
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
Electron
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge and that is found in the space surrounding the nucleus
Polarity
A lack of electrical symmetry in a molecule.
Solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Solvent
dissolving substance in a solution
Solution
type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributed
Solubility
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
pH
a scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
hydrogen bond
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
Adhesion
force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
Cohesion
force of attraction between identical molecules
capillary action
tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
macromolecule
a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
Monomer
small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
Polymer
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
Carbohydrates
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
monosaccharide
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
Disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
Polysaccharides
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
Lipid
macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
Glycerol
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
fatty acids
chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, building blocks of lipids
Triglycerides
an energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
Phospholipids
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
Protien
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
amino acid
compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
nucleaic acid
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosporous
Nucleotide
subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
activation energy
energy input necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
Enzyme
protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions
Substrate
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time
Denature
Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
active site
a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
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