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Unit 1: Chemistry of Life
Terms in this set (44)
Basic unit of matter
An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound
chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared
Anything that has mass and takes up space
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge and that is found in the space surrounding the nucleus
A lack of electrical symmetry in a molecule.
A substance that is dissolved in a solution.
dissolving substance in a solution
type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributed
the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure
a scale with values from 0 to 14, used to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
force of attraction between identical molecules
tendency of water to rise in a thin tube
a molecule containing a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, nucleic acid, or synthetic polymer.
small chemical unit that makes up a polymer
molecules composed of many monomers; makes up macromolecules
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; type of nutrient that is the major source of energy for the body
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
macromolecule made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, building blocks of lipids
an energy-rich compound made up of a single molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acid.
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair
compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other end
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosporous
subunit of which nucleic acids are composed; made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
energy input necessary to initiate a chemical reaction
protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time
Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.