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71 terms

Ch. 8 Microbiology

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Genome
genetic info in a cell
Chromosomes
contain DNA (genes)
30, 000
We have about how many genes?
NOT
Genes are ____ covered all over (can be spaces apart).
Gene
code for functional products (most of the time these products will be proteins).
DNA, proteins
____ to mRNA to _____.
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
4 bases of DNA
nucleotides
contain a nitrogenous base
deoxyribose
what is the sugar in DNA called?
negative
phosphate groups have a ____ charge.
hydrogen bonds
DNA is bonded by what?
Genotype
genetic makeup; potential properties
Phenotype
actual expressed properties; protein
Bacteria Chromosomes
contains 1 circular chromosome
Bacteria Chromosomes
1000X larger than the cell
E. Coli
an example of a bacteria chromosome (4 X 10^7 bp (base pair))
semi conservative
is used to describe DNA replication
DNA replication
strands will unwind; DNA polymerase add base to the complimentary strand
OH
an example of 3 prime
PO4-
an example of 5 prime
3 prime
bases are only added at the what end of a strand?
DNA synthesis
requires lots of ATP
leading strand
continuously
lagging strand
made in pieces
DNA replication
very accurate
Polymerase
"proofreads"
1000
____ bases per second.
Transcription
DNA to RNA
messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA
3 types of RNA
Translation
mRNA to proteins
proteins
made up of amino acids
3 bases
Every ____ ____ in a gene codes for an amino acid.
the genetic code
is universal
degenerate
the code is ____, several codons could make one type of amino acid
Mrna
is read by ribosomes
Ribosomes
two subunits
tRNA
binds the amino acid; has an anticodon
Ribosomes
2 binding sites for tRNA
exons or introns
Bacteria has no ____. Only in eukaryotic cells.
Mutagens
unnatural mistakes
Mutagens
any agent that can chemically or physically react with DNA
chemicals, X rays, UV light
examples of mutagens
Carcinogens
cancer causing
mutagens, carcinogens, carcinogens, mutagens
Not all ____ are ____ but all ____ are _____.
UV light
non ionizing
UV light
often causes thyme disease
UV light
promotes DNA replication
Vertical Gene Transfer; horizontal gene transfer
two general types of genetic transfer
Vertical Gene Transfer
organism to its offspring
plants, animals, bacteria
example of vertical gene transfer
Horizontal Gene Transfer
gene is passed to other bacteria, not offspring
Horizontal Gene Transfer
involves a donor cell -----> recipient cell
Horizontal Gene Transfer
occurs approx 1% or less of a population
transformation, conjugation, transduction
types of genetic transfer
transformation
naked DNA transfer to a bacteria
transformation
works best if the two cells are closely related
bacillus, streptococcus, staphylococcus
examples of transformation
Conjugation
transfer of a plasmid from a donor to a recipient cell
plasmids
Often antibiotic resistant genes are on ____.
Transduction
DNA is transferred from one bacteria to another inside a virus
bacteriophage or phage
example of transduction
transposons
small segments of DNA that can move on chromosomes; some bacteria have these
260 nm
wavelength of uv light
CUU, CUC, CUA
example of a degenerate
UAA, UGA, UAG
nonsense codons
AUG
start codon
61 sense codons; 3 nonsense codons
contained in the genetic code; ____ ____ ____ (code for amino acids) and ___ ____ ____.
genomics
the sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes
enzymatic
catalyze particular reactions
structural
participate in large functional complexes such as membranes or flagella.
transcription
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