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AP World History Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (c. 1750 to c. 1900)
Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration, c. 1750 to c. 1900
Terms in this set (28)
How did Industrialization affect seemingly unrelated fields like social structures, culture, the economy?
-Industrialization solidified the positions of the upper and lower class - factory workers did not earn enough to better their social standings and factory owners became very wealthy. There were some exceptions such as successful entrepreneurs (such as Carnegie) but they were rare.
-"Streets were paved with gold" - Immigrants came to America looking for opportunities to better their social status and financial standings
-Women and children became important in bringing money for the family and as a labor source.
-Steel and oil industries fueled the growth of the American economy.
What combination of factors were necessary to begin the Industrial Revolution?
-labor sources from immigrants, women, and children
-growth of cities (shifted from rural areas)
-initial investments from entrepreneurs
-reliable sources of raw materials (ex. Cotton for textiles, iron for steel)
-a need for the product
What "fueled" (both literally and metaphorically) the Industrial Revolution?
-labor, raw materials
-Same as the last question
How did factories change the nature of labor itself?
-shift from agricultural labor to industrial labor
-jobs became less diversified (e.g. a laborer would always do the same task in a factory)
-more women and children in the workforce
-decreased sanitary/ safety conditions, frequent abuse to the workers in the workplace
-sometimes unfair practices were enacted (very low wages, long hours)
-usually based on a strict time schedule
Where did factories start, and where/how did the factory system spread?
Factories were introduced in Britain, specifically factories that specialized in textile and iron production. The factory system spread to other regions of Europe and to America. The concept of factories spread to regions that had raw materials available to them. There was also an increasing need (due to rapid population growths and increasing global trade) for certain products, so factories, places that can produce those products reliably and quickly, were necessary to meet that demand.
What was the "2nd Industrial Revolution?"
The second industrial revolution (which occurred during the late 19th century) was based around the many scientific innovations that occurred during the time (Bessemer steel, electricity, internal combustion engine, new chemicals). The rapid increase in demand for these types of products caused the need for new methods of fast production - such as mass production and the assembly line. These changes occurred mostly in the United States and continental Europe.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect the role of science in larger society?
Scientific methods became more accepted by factory owners. New ways and techniques to better improve production started to have a scientific framework. Accepting scientific practices slowly trickled down to the lower class. It also caused a dispute between religion and reason.
How did the Industrial Revolution influence world trade overall?
It created new markets, demand was met by increased production, the importation of raw materials became more prevalent. New technology such as railroads and steam power lowered transit time (therefore, exportation of perishable food products became possible) Overall, global trade increased.
What raw materials were commonly exported to industrialized areas?
Coal, iron, cotton, food (wheat or livestock for butchering purposes), labor, wood
As industrial production rose, what type(s) of production declined?
Products that were made by artisans or were handmade (ex. made-by-order furniture, pottery, etc.)
What "new" markets did industrialized states look for/create for their exports?
Easily exploitable natives (such as those in imperial colonies) who can monopolized by their products
What role did monetary and precious metals play in the Industrial Revolution?
-Iron became an essential material for steel production
-Silver, gold, and copper were exported faster due to the introduction of faster transportation (steam power and railroad)
-Important raw materials, so there was an increase in exports in these materials
-Gold and silver became important in developing economies (to back up paper money), so they were important exports
What financial institutions facilitated industrial production?
-Banks loaned money to entrepreneurs
-Governments (particularly the U.S) funded industrial developments such as railroads or canals which aided in transportation of raw materials and exports
How did the Industrial Revolution affect the scale of businesses and overall economic activity?
-"Trusts" and big businesses became more prevalent
-Monopolies overtook the market which made it more difficult for smaller businesses to survive
-Businesses grew to a national scale
-Money was concentrated with the rich
How did industrialists legitimize the economic changes of the Industrial Rev?
-Social Darwinism - the big businesses deserved to survive since they were better equipped in terms of money and other investments than the smaller businesses. This also reflected their views of themselves in relation to the lower class.
-"Gospel of Wealth" - God gave the rich the duty to help the poor by providing opportunities but not through charity so the poor would have to work for their own well-beings.
-"Self-strengthening"- they believed that their work would develop the nation as a whole
What were the important developments in transportation during the Ind. Rev?
-Steam power/ coal - powered ships and trains reliably
-Railroads/trains - enabled products/ideas to be quickly transmitted to other regions of the continent
How did workers respond to the Ind. Rev., and how did their vision of society compare to industrialists'?
Some accepted their status (ex. believed in Rags to Riches) but most protested against the unfair work practices enacted by big businesses. The protests led to worker unions, the later establishment of anti-trust organizations/constitutional acts.
How did governments respond to the tremendous economic changes of the Industrial Revolution?
-In US, presidents/federal government did nothing to stop the overgrowth of big business
-In US, the government banned slavery due to shift to industrial economy
-In Japan, the government became more involved with business.
-Developed more massive armies due to increase of wealth
-Competition between industrial nations, which resulted in more conflicts
How and why did some governments reform their practices because of the Industrial Revolution?
-As big businesses grew there became a need to mediate between employers and workers.
-Initially, the US government favored big businesses in the court. Later, however, the government was somewhat against big business and several anti-monopoly acts were passed (e.g. Sherman Anti-Trust)
-The US government had to also deal with protesters (particularly those working under factory conditions).
-Some governments, such as China, actively pursued industrial activities to strengthen the state (i.e., self-strengthening) by adopting western technology (which was considered to be shameful in the past). They did not, however, truly became an industrial nation as their "self-strengthening" was a reaction to the recent rise of Western dominance.
How did the Industrial Revolution affect social and demographic characteristics?
-In industrial nations, cities were population centers
-Initially, mortality rates/instances of illnesses increased to the unsanitary conditions of factories and cities
-famines and food shortages were common as food had to be brought into cities
-population increased dramatically
What are the similarities & differences between colonialism and imperialism?
Similarities: Both involve the acquisition of land, the control of another nation
· Colonialism: This refers to the immigration of people to a new territory who still abide by the laws and customs of the mother country. Colonies tend to be more permanent than imperial satellite nations.
· Imperialism: Focused more on monetary goals rather than permanent settlement. Primary workforce comes from natives of that territory rather than immigrants/settlers from the mother country.
How did imperialism affect Europe's influence around the world?
* Increases due to the greater presence of European colonies throughout the world
* Spread of westernization (the West started to out produce China and Japan)
* European culture (language, religion, etc.) spread
Which states increased their influence and control over their pre-existing colonies, and which saw their influence decrease?
* Great Britain increased its control over India
* Spain lost control of its colonies in Latin America, as their colonies successfully fought for independence
* Great Britain also lost control of its American colonies
* China increased control over their empire (Manchuria, Taiwan, Vietnam, etc.)
* Persia and the ottoman empires control weakened (Balkans, Romania)
What methods and tactics did industrialized states use to establish and expand their empires?
* Empires offered incentives to natives (westernization, culture, protection) in exchange for their compliance
* They occupied powerful roles in court and office (eg. China in Thailand)
* They used military force to stabilize the empire
* Indirect rule (eg. In Africa Britain ruled through the natives)
* Adopting business imperialism provided a stable source of income (through the acquisition of raw materials/cash crops) which could be used to further government efforts to expand their empires
How did imperialism help, hurt, or change various states?
* Overall, African countries/nations were impaired by the intervention of imperialistic European nations
oThe African population was largely decimated due to an increase in disease, plague, and violence
o Natives were exploited for unfair labor practices (not necessarily slavery) and raw materials were plundered by the Europeans
* The court of colonized nations began to resemble that of Europe (for example the court of Sultan of Kedah resembled European practices)
oTrial by jury replaced supernatural practices
* Countries in South America, the Caribbean, and Latin America became predominately Spanish/Portuguese
* Countries in Southeast Asia (ex. Philippines) became predominately Christian/Catholic
*American colonies experienced a boom in population growth (due to British rule), which accelerated settlement and industrialization in the region
How did anti-imperialism affect the Ottoman Empire's territories?
*Resistance of colonies led to the formation of independent states
o Ex. Balkans, Greece, Egypt
What were the effects of nationalism on various peoples and regions?
*Nationalism started revolutions to gain independence from mother country
o The Jamaica letter was an appeal to England to support Latin America in their fight for independence against Span
o Anti-imperialism in the Ottoman Empire also thrived off of nationalism and helped to create new territories
* Increased racism against natives
How did imperialists justify imperialism?
* Social Darwinism
*The belief that they were aiding natives through religious conversion and westernization
o Believed it was "god's duty"
* Promise of new wealth achieved through greater access to raw materials
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