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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
WVU. Dr. Carol Zwickel Final Exam Study Guide Objectives
Terms in this set (39)
A political system, that developed in Europe during the Middle Ages, based on the rule of local lords bound to a king by ties of loyalty. It developed as a system of local defense against invaders in western Europe, China, and Japan.
(500 C.E. - 1453 C.E.) The eastern portion of the Roman Empire which survived beyond the collapse of the Roman Empire with its capital at Constantinople; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam.
Five duties that all Muslims must carry out: faith, prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage (hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca).
The Sacred book of Islam. Muslims believe it contains the exact word of God.
Pepin the Short
(714-768) first Carolingian king of the Franks, son of Charles Martel and father of Charlemagne. In 741 he and his brother Carloman succeeded their father, Charles Martel, as mayors of the palace and de facto rulers of the kingdom during an interregnum.
Defeated the Muslims in the Battle of Tours. The Carolingian dynasty is named after him.
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Illiterate, though started an intellectual revival.
Battle of Poitiers
Fought between the Kingdoms of England and France resulting in the second of the three great English victories of the Hundred Years' War
Song of Roland
An epic that talked of a chivalric knight named Roland, it revealed the popular image of Charlemagne in later centuries.
Anglo-Saxon epic poem dated to the 8th century which details Anglo-Saxon society through the adventures of the hero Beowulf.
Written by St. Thomas Aquinas, it is one of the most notable scholastic works of the medieval period. Aquinas' work founded Christian belief on Aristotelian principles.
The Canterbury Tales
Written by Chaucer. Chaucer follows a band of English pilgrims traveling to Thomas Becket's tomb. Each character in the story tells their own individual story.
The Divine Comedy
Written by Dante Aligheri. Epic poem in 3 parts: goes to hell, purgatory, and heaven with virgil.
Copied arches, domes, and straight lines from Rome. Had thick walls and few windows.
characterized by pointed arches, high ceilings, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows created by Abbot Suger.
circular wheel especially of Gothic Architecture
These were a hallmark of the Gothic design and stabilized high, thin, stone columns allowing large windows and high ceilings
An arch with a strong center point. (Seen in Gothic Architecture)
A symbolic narrative in which a deeper, often moral meaning exists beyond the literal level of work.
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism. Best known work is Scrovegni Chapel
Artist of Madonna enthroned with angels and prophets
The Bubonic Plague
One third of he population of Europe died from this disease and was brought to Europe through trade
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake
Italian writer famous for his vernacular prose, in particular the Decameron, which reveals stories of society during the plague
An example of Gothic Architecture in Paris
A cathedral in France that is the best example of gothic style architecture.
A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II between Christians and Muslims over claim to the Holy Land
Songs sung in unison with one melody organized by the pope based on order by mass, written in latin 600 AD. Sung by Muslims in prayers.
A tapestry (large piece of cloth) that recounts the battle of hastings. It represents the incidents of Willam the conqueror's expedition to England.
Robert de Sorbon
Was a French theologian, the chaplain of Louis IX of France, and founder of the Sorbonne college in Paris
University of Paris
A church owned, school. Taught theology. The professors were paid by the church, and was ran by the professors. The intellectual center of France.
Battle of Hastings
the decisive battle in which William the Conqueror (duke of Normandy) defeated the Saxons under Harold II (1066) and thus left England open for the Norman Conquest
Transitional period between Anglo-Saxon and modern English. 1066-1500. Chaucer is a good example of this period's work.
The Anglo-Saxon language spoken in what is now England from approximately 450 to 1150 A.D.
The Great Schism 2
In 1054, the split between Roman Catholic Church and Greek Orthodox Church.
Where the lord and his knights lived; usually built on a cliff or hilltop in order to make it easier to defend during an attack.
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