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Opiates & Opioids
Terms in this set (33)
Opiates are _________ derived from opium, an extract form the ________ plant
Name 3 drugs included under the opiate category
morphine, codeine, heroin
Endogenous and exogenous opioids interfere with this pathway and stimulate which centers in the limbic system?
pain perception pathway
While the Federal Controlled Substance Act of 1970 classified heroin as a Schedule 1 drug, most other opioids were classified as? What does this mean?
schedule 2 - permits usage only with a medical prescription
Which opioid receptors are found in both the brain and spinal cord?
mu1 and kappa
Which opioid receptors are found in the brain?
Which opioid receptors are found in the brain, GIT, and UT? What kind of side effects are associated with opioids that stimulate these receptors?
mu2 - respiratory depression, ileus, constipation, and urinary retention
What are the body natural agonists at the opiate receptors?
Activation of opiate receptors by endorphins produces what effects?
regulates pain perception, internal temp, appetite, sex behavior, learning and memory, and BP
Describe the difference b/w potency and efficacy
potency describes how much of a drug is required to achieve the desired effect, while efficacy is the max effect achieved
Unlike full agonists, partial agonists cannot produce a max response, regardless of dose used, so they are considered less what?
Buprenorphine, a partial agonist, requires a lower dose than methadone to achieve its max effect. Therefore it is more what than methadone?
Buprenorphine doesn't provide the same degree of analgesia as methadone, so it is less?
Why are partial agonists safer than full agonists?
they have a ceiling effect for both analgesia and negative side effects
What is the best way to administer opiates in general? What way is good for cats?
cats - OTM
The way in which opiates are metabolized means they should be used with caution in which patients?
those with hepatic or renal disease
In which species are opiates less effective? Why?
cats - decreased glucuronidation
Analgesia is produced by binding to which opiate receptors in the spinal cord, brain and periphery?
mu, kappa, delta, and ORL-1
The degree of analgesia depends upon what factors?
classification of drug, dose admin, and species
Give examples of pure mu agonists. What kind of pain are these drugs used for?
morphine, methadone, meperidine, oxymorphone, hydromorphone, fentanyl
used for moderate to severe pain
Buprenorphine is a partial agonist at mu receptors and butorphanol is a mild agonist or mu antagonist. Both are used for what kind of pain?
mild to moderate pain
Pure mu agonists cause what changes in mood?
euphoria or dysphoria - sedation - decreased motor activity
It is advised against using opioids alone in which species due to increased locomotor activity, compulsive eating behavior, and agitation with high doses?
What effects do opioids, especially mu agonist, have on respiration?
decrease responsiveness of respiratory center to CO2 - decrease resp rate and/or TV - antitussive
Describe the effects of pure mu agonists on CV? How can they be reversed or prevented?
bradycardia and mild hypotension due to decreased SNS outflow to the heart
prevented/reversed by giving anticholinergic
All opioids have what effect on the GIT?
reduce propulsive activity
smooth muscle and sphincter tone increased
Opioids can cause ileus, vomition, and regurgitation which increases the potential for what?
Opioids inhibit what via mu-receptor activation which diminishes bladder sensations and may delay the micturition threshold, thus increasing compliance and bladder capacity?
bladder afferents at the dorsal horn
Why are opioids often given to animals before surgery?
reduce amount of anesthetic agents required for induction and maintenace
preemptive intraoperative and postoperative analgesia
Name 2 pure mu opioid agonists
Name a partial mu agonist opioid
Name an opioid agonist/antagonist
Name an opioid antagonist
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