55 terms

Psy 270

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A goal that overrides people's difference from one another is called a(n)
superordinate goal
A mediator seeks to achieve beneficial resolution by having the parties adopt a _______ orientation.
win-win
When individuals consume more than their share and the cost of doing so is dispersed among all, the result is called
the tragedy of the commons
Factory workers want a pay rate of $15 per hour and management offers $12 per hour. After two weeks of conflict, they agree to have a third party set the pay scale. After hearing both sides, the third party sets the rate at $14. This is an example of resolving conflict through
arbitration.
Research on laboratory dilemmas reveals that cooperation is facilitated if
the opponents can communicate with one another
Which one of the following is NOT one of the 4 C's of peacemaking identified in the text?
correction
Aronson's jigsaw technique involved having elementary school children
form academically racial and diverse groups with each member of the group becoming an expert in one area.
The reciprocal views that parties in conflict often hold of one another are referred to as
mirror-image preceptions
Pursing one's own self-interest to the collective detriment of one's community is the central pattern in
a social dilemma
In times of tension, such as during an international crisis,
views of the other side become more simplistic.
Few findings have been more consistent than those that show that _______ people are helpful people.
happy
You trip over a fallen branch and sprain your ankle. According to research on the bystander effect, a stranger who sees your plight will be most likely to offer aid if there are _____ others present.
no
Confederates who where dressed either conservatively or in counterculture grab approached either "conventional" or "unconventional" students and asked for change o make a phone call. Results of this experiment confirmed a _______ bias in helping.
similarity
According to evolutionary psychology,
most altruism in human society reflects either a kin selection process or reciprocity
Myers suggests there are a number of reasons why individuals who live in big cities tend to be less helpful. Which of the following is NOT one of those reasons.
They become cold and uncaring in the city.
People who live in _______ are least likely to relay a phone message, mail lost letters, cooperate with interviewers, do small favors, or help a lost child.
big cities
When Will sees other people crying, he cries too, and when he sees someone who is embarrassed, he feels embarrassed. Will would likely score high on a measure of:
empathy
The idea that altruism towards one's close relatives enhances the survival of mutually shard genes is referred to as
kin-selection
Which of the following is likely to increase helping behavior?
the presence of others offering help.
Helping ______ a bad mood and _______ a good mood.
softens; sustains
At a party, Ellie meets Rob and Blake. The three get involved in a philosophical discussion that lasts through the evening. By the end of the evening, Ellie has discovered that she and Blake see things eye-to-eye, whereas she and Rob see things differently. All else being equal, Ellie will probably like
blake better
Which of the following proverbs is clearly NOT supported by the research findings?
"Opposites attract."
One factor that will increase the likelihood that a friendship between two people will develop is
how often their paths cross
Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the physical attractiveness stereotype?
What is beautiful is good
A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions is the definition of
the need to belong
Self-disclosure involves
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
When people describe themselves in personal ads, women often offer _______ and seek _______.
attractiveness; status
Psychologist Robert Sternberg views love as a triangle whose three sides include all but which of the following?
attachment
In an experiment by Zajonc and his colleagues, participants were exposed to brief novel passages of music while they focused their attention on other tasks. Results indicated that mere exposure lead to liking
even when people were unaware of what they had been exposed to
According to the text, which characterization is NOT true of people who usually stay married?
They cohabited or became pregnant before marriage.
factors that effect liking
A.) proximity
B.) similarity
C.) good feeling
D.) physical attractiveness
cues that make someone attractive?
1. youth
2. health
3. body shape
Self - evaluation maintance theory
We are attracted to things that reinforce self-concept. Explains similarity and good things.
Social exchange theory
We are attracted to things that are rewarding (at low cost)
Evolution theory
We are attracted to things that improved ancestor's fitness
Self-expansion theory
We are attracted to things that expand sense of self
Passionate love
Often sudden. Always intense, all-consuming response toward another
three conditions of passionate love
A.) Culture that believes in it ---- "invented" in the middle ages
B.) Physiological arousal --- Emotion requires "arousal" and "label"
C.) appropriate person
Companionate love
The abiding affection felt for someone with whom your life is intertwined. may last a lifetime
who stays together?
Similarity-----Emphasized their shared values and beliefs. Minimizes conflicts
do things together ------adds excitement (passion) and reduces boredom.increase sense of unity in duality
positive affect------attributional biases.
magic ratio ----- 5:1 - 5 positives to every negative
Maintain commitment ------ Holds together through bad times (unneeded for good times)
Altruism
willingness to help. Helpful concern for others without asking for something in return
Situational conditions for helping
1.) we must NOTICE the event. Often we behave as if we're on autopilot. May not notice things going on around us.
2.) we must INTREPRET situation as help is needed. Many emergency situations are ambiguous to outsider; look to others to assist definitions.
3.) feel RESPONSIBLE for providing help. Even when we know something has happened and aid is needed, help is not given unless someone assumes responsibility. Interesting, the MORE people around, the less likely it is that help will be given = bystander effect
Diffusion of Responsibility responsibility falls on many people
4.) must feel the ABILITY to help
what would effect the ability to help?
fear, time, knowledge of the situation, the amount of power you have
when needing help you shouldnt just cry for help. what should you do?
1.) pick someone out
2.) define the emergency
3.) tell what you need them to do
Altruistic theories
Propose that people are helpful out of selfless concern for others
Egoistic theories
Propose that what appears altruistic is really a disguised form of helping the self
Proximate theories
Focus on immediate situation/circumstance
Distal theories
Focus on background factors/conditions.
Altruistic (proximate): empathy - altruism
Others distress generate feelings of concern in us that motivates us to help (to relieve others distress). If you have empathy = more helpfulness
Egoistic (proximate): negative state relief
Others distress generates anxiety and sadness and we are motivated to reduce own sadness or guilt. Guilty conscious. When you have high empathy, you have more help. When you have low empathy, you have less help.
Altruistic (distal): social responsibility
Others distress is believed to concerns us because of a norm that we should help those who are less fortunate
Conflict
A perceived in compatibility of actions or goals
What are sources of conflict?
Competition. Perceived injustices (inequity = unfairness). Outcomes: inputs inexact. Groups in conflict.
Four horseman of apocalypse (Gottman's couples)
1.) criticism (vs complaint) - what behavior is the problem. --- You always/never = dispositional attribution (focus on behavior/situation) targets individual
2.) Contempt - Show hostility or disgust toward other = sarcasm/mocking/ridicule (especially in public)
3.) defensiveness -- Refuse to acknowledge own contribution (failure to tell how they feel). Often return with cross-complaint (respond with attack rather than consideration)
4.) stonewalling --- Withdrawal from conversation/communications
Flooding
When men get too overwhelmed with emotion that they have to take a step back from the situation.