World History Unit 1 - Enlightenment
Terms in this set (15)
A period in European history when reason was used to try to understand and explain human nature
Revolutionary/paradigm shifts in thinking
a revolutionary (big) change from one way of thinking to another
Absolute Monarchy (Absolutism)
Government where the king or queen rules the country without laws controlling their actions (this is called absolute power)
Divine Rights of Kings
the belief that kings receive their power from God
abuses of power
One cause of the Enlightenment; kings and queens were treating people harshly, and laws did not apply to them.
A major change in thinking during the Enlightenment that focused on studying the world through observation and reason and the questioning of accepted beliefs (like the Bible/religion)
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property -- this was a main idea of John Locke
An agreement between the people and their government, where the people give their consent (permission) to be governed
Enlightenment philosopher that said People were born with reason and are equal and independent (GOOD)"; Wanted a gov't where natural rights are protected: Life, Liberty, and Property
Enlightenment philosopher that said People were born selfish & competitive (EVIL; said the only way to maintain order was to give all the power to one person; Best government: absolute monarchy
Enlightenment philosopher that spoke about freedom of speech, press, and religion ; his ideas influenced the 1st Amendment of the US Constitution
Enlightenment philosopher who believed People are born good, but society makes them corrupt & power-hungry
Therefore, we need a government that has 3 branches to divide the power up - let to our 3 branches of government (Legislative, Executive, Judicial)
Enlightenment philosopher that said people are born good and compassionate
Therefore, people should be trusted to vote and govern themselves ; best government = direct democracy
Enlightenment think who spoke out for women's rights and wanted women to be equal to men.
She said women had natural rights and Women should be educated, so they can educate their children
Writer of the Declaration of Independence - inspired by John Locke's idea of natural rights, but changed it to "Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness"