The awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment.
Stage 1 sleep
The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves
Stage 2 sleep
A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles"
Stage 3 sleep
A sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep.
Stage 4 sleep
The deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
Sleep occupying 20 percent of an adult's sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming.
Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled.
Latent content of dreams
According to Freud, the "disguised" meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects.
The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep.
Hobson's theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories lodged in carious portions of the brain.
A learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness
Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user so that withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the drug that, in some cases, may be nearly irresistible.
Drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension. (cocaine, amphetamines)