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21 terms

Psychology Chapter 4: States of Conciousness

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Consciousness
The awareness of the sensations, thoughts, and feelings being experienced at a given moment.
Stage 1 sleep
The state of transition between wakefulness and sleep, characterized by relatively rapid, low-amplitude brain waves
Stage 2 sleep
A sleep deeper than that of stage 1, characterized by a slower, more regular wave pattern, along with momentary interruptions of "sleep spindles"
Stage 3 sleep
A sleep characterized by slow brain waves, with greater peaks and valleys in the wave pattern than in stage 2 sleep.
Stage 4 sleep
The deepest stage of sleep, during which we are least responsive to outside stimulation.
REM sleep
Sleep occupying 20 percent of an adult's sleeping time, characterized by increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate; erections; eye movements; and the experience of dreaming.
Unconscious wish fulfillment theory
Sigmund Freud's theory that dreams represent unconscious wishes that dreamers desire to see fulfilled.
Latent content of dreams
According to Freud, the "disguised" meanings of dreams, hidden by more obvious subjects.
Manifest content of dreams
According to Freud, the apparent story line of a dream
Dreams-for-survival theory
The theory suggesting that dreams permit information that is critical for our daily survival to be reconsidered and reprocessed during sleep.
Activation-synthesis theory
Hobson's theory that the brain produces random electrical energy during REM sleep that stimulates memories lodged in carious portions of the brain.
Circadian rhythms
Biological processes that occur regularly on approximately a 24-hour cycle
Daydreams
Fantasies that people construct while awake
Hypnosis
A trancelike state of heightened susceptibility to the suggestions of others
Meditation
A learned technique for refocusing attention that brings about an altered state of consciousness
Psychoactive drugs
Drugs that influence a person's emotions, perceptions, and behavior.
Addictive drugs
Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in the user so that withdrawal from them leads to a craving for the drug that, in some cases, may be nearly irresistible.
Stimulants
Drugs that have an arousal effect on the central nervous system, causing a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, and muscular tension. (cocaine, amphetamines)
Depressants
Drugs that slow down the nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, Rohypnol)
Narcotics
Drugs that increase relaxation and relieve pain and anxiety. (Heroin, Morphine)
Hallucinogen
A drug that is capable of producing hallucinations, or changes in the perceptual process. (Marijuana, MDMA, LSD)