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AP European History Chapter 11 ID's
Spielvogel's "Western Civilization"- Unit 1, Chapter 12. "The Later Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century"
Terms in this set (56)
Little Ice Age
period of climate cooling that began in 12th century-caused bad weather conditions
Causes of Black Death
Little Ice Age+heavy rains caused short growing seasons= famine and starvation spreading in Europe; European pop. increase during High Middle ages meant Europe reached limit of what agricultural technology could support; increased urbanization=faster disease spreading, more poor people; malnutrition made everyone more susceptible to disease
Devastatingly deadly plague which killed 25-50% of European population, broke down all normal human relations, and caused economic, social, and political upheaval
Origin and Spread of Black Death
Originated in China, spread by Mongol armies and traders. First reached Europe in 1347 (Sicily), spread through Italy into Northern Europe along trade routes
Most common and important, least deadly form of plague. Spread by fleas on rats, caused swelling of lymph nodes, killed 50-60% of those infected.
the bacteria that caused the bubonic and pneumonic plagues and was found in fleas that lived on black rats
Another form of the plague where the bacterial infection spread to the lungs and resulted in severe coughing- allowed easy spread of disease from person to person.
Economic and Social Responses to the Plague
Economic Responses- Increased peasant wages, lesser demand for food, grain rotted in fields, stable or decreased prices, breakdown of feudalism (more services for hire), peasant revolts
Social Responses- High levels of death in population, people began living for the now, anti-Semitism and persecution, millenarianism, parents deserted children, cultural fascination with death, Flagellants, increased regulation by cities to control cleanliness, increased importance placed on children, decreased women's rights
Written by Giovanni Boccaccio, set during Black Death, tells stories of 10 people fleeing from cities, presents secular point of view which reflected easygoing cynical post-plague attitude
A social response to the plague.
Groups of people who inflicted physical harm on themselves as penance for society's sins, believing that the plague was God's punishment. Created mass public hysteria and violence, so they were condemned by Pope Clement VI and disbanded.
A social response to the plague.
Organized massacres of Jewish villages, especially in Germany. Caused by belief that Jews had caused plague by poisoning wells. Many Jews moved to Poland, Russia, and Eastern Europe to avoid persecution, making Eastern Europe home of large Jewish communities.
Statute of Laborers
Economic response to the plague.
Aristocrats were hurt by increasing price of labor and decreasing price of goods. (Document passed by English Parliament to attempt to limit wages to preplague levels and forbid the mobility of peasants.) Ultimately did little to stop the breakdown of feudalism, only angered peasants.
Peasant revolt in northern France. Causes: Disruption of normal order by Black Death, destruction of Hundred Years' War, destruction of peasant lands by French, English, and mercenary soldiers, class tensions (aristocracy hated and blamed peasants for loss of power). Peasants murdered and pillaged some nobles, but were quickly put down when nobles banded together.
Wat Tyler and John Ball
leaders of English Peasants' Revolt; helped march on London in 1381, called for abolition of serfdom, labor services, tithes, and ending poll taxes (Flat tax on every adult), King Richard II surrendered,but then he arrested them. However, the poll tax was abolished.
wool workers of Florence saw wages decline and formed workers unions and revolted to win some concessions from the government but these rights were ended after 1382
Causes of the Hundred Years' War
1. English king holds duchy of Gascony, but is a vassal to French monarch . English were angered when France tries to strenghthen its control of Gascony.
2. Struggle over French Throne- Closest male heir was Edward III, son of Isabella, who was also King of England. French nobles claimed a cousin of Capetians, Philip of Valois, as King Philip VI.
3. Edward III refuses to pay Philip IV homage for Gascony, so France seized it. Edward declares war on Philip.
4. Both monarchs had strong, violent personalities, and wanted luxury and glory from war. Nobles also wanted monetary and territorrial gain.
A bow invented by the Welsh that was less powerful, but could fire faster, than the crossbow. The English foot soldiers adopted it in the Hundred Years' War, which gave them an early advantage against the much larger French army.
Battle of Crecy
Battle early in Hundred Year's War. Edward III invaded Normandy, and Philip IV gathered a large French force to defeat him. However, French were unorganized and easily defeated by English archers. After this victory, Edward captured port of Calais to use as a base for other invasions.
English king who reopened the 100 Years' War in 1415. The French dukes of Burgundy and Orleans were in a civil war, fighting to control the weak French king Charles VI. The English king saw this as an opportunity to invade France. He allied with the French duke of Burgundy, captured Northern France, and forced French king Charles VI to agree to a treaty recognizing him as heir to French throne.
Battle of Agincourt
1415; Henry V's invasion of France led to this battle. The English again defeated the French using their longbows, despite their smaller numbers. The French knights could hardly move in their armor, and many men were taken prisoner by the much smaller English army. The English were afraid that the prisoners might rally and fight back, and killed them. Disastrous losses for the French.
Joan of Arc
born a peasant, a French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII (dauphin) crowned king. Her bravery inspired the soldiers at the Battle of Orleans. She was captured by English allies and tried for witchcraft, then burned at the stake
French site of major victory in the Hundred Years' War. French soldiers there were inspired to victory by Joan of Arc, and then went on to recapture much of the surrounding area.
Charles the dauphin/ VII
son of Charles VI;disinherited by Treaty of Troyes but still considered himself real heir to French throne;governed southern 2/3 of French lands;weak and unable to rally French against English;his being crowned king was one of Joan of Arc's goals, and he eventually was made King Charles VII
Invented, along with cannons, by Chinese in eleventh century, Mongols used and improved cannons, spread to Middle East and Europe by thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Cannons aided France in winning Hundred Years' War.
Gabelle and Taille
French taxes on salt and land respectively, started by Philip VI to pay for Hundred Years' War. These taxes angered the middle class, who attempted (but ultimately failed) to use the Estates-General to reform the government and tax structure.
dukes of Burgundy and Orleans
These French nobles competed to control weak King Charles VI and the French monarchy. Their fighting created political and economic chaos, spliting France into a civil war. The Burgundians ultimately allied with England in the Hundred Years' War.
Golden Bull of Charles IV
Standardized electing German monarchy rather than hereditary one;stated 4 lay princes and 3 ecclesiastical rulers would serve as electors of Holy Roman Emperor. This oligarchy chose weak, family-dependent rulers. Emperors were powerless to control any of the independent states and princes that made up the HRE.
free Northern Italian cities that were formed with republican governments. However, because of internal strife, these governments were often replaced with temporary dictatorships which became permanent, or they were engulfed by larger city states using mercenary armies.
the Visconti and the d'Este
Tyrants who took over northern Italian communes, then their families purchased titles from the Holy Roman Emperor (ruler of Northern Italy in name only) to legitimize their power. The Visconti became dukes of Milan, and the d'Este became dukes of Ferrera.
mercenary leaders employed by Italian city-states who sold their services to the highest bidder
the conservative "old rich" class that ruled Florence before rise of popolo grasso
literally, "fat people" -wealthy merchant-industrialist class that developed because of the rapid expansion of Florence's economy. They established a dominant role in government with the Ordinances of Justice
small shopkeepers and artisans who gained a share in the government of Florence by revolutionary activity in the mid-1300s, which was later taken away by a counterrevolution of the popolo grasso
Council of Ten and the Doge
The Doge had been the executive head of the Venetian government since the Middle Ages, but by 1300 he was mainly a symbolic figure with no real power. The Council of Ten, formed in 1310, became the real executive power of Venice, which had an extremely stable government.
a bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in 1302, which said the power of secular authorities is subordinate to the spiritual power held by popes. Boniface was stating his opinion as a part of the conflict between himself and French King Philip IV over king's ability to tax clergy. However, when Boniface died after he was kidnapped by Philip, it was a victory for monarchs over the Pope.
Philip IV used his new authority to get a French pope, Clement V, elected, and then get the papacy to move to this city in the HRE near France. The papacy remained here for 72 years, during which many believed the Pope was under control of the French. Popes here centralized power, and began taxing clergy to make up for loss of Papal States, which led to highly vocal criticism of the papacy, and calls for its return to Rome.
Catherine of Sienna
Religious woman from Florence who was sent on a mission to convince Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome. She ultimately convinced him and he returned to Rome, but died shortly after.
When, in Italy, Pope Gregory XI died, Italians surrounded the election of the new pope and demanded that an Italian be elected. Urban VI, an Italian, was chosen. Urban tried to reform the curia, but did so undiplomatically and insulted many people. The French cardinals left Rome and said that because he was elected under unfair pressure, Urban VI was not, in fact, Pope. They then chose another pope, Clement VII, who was French. Both Popes had a legitimate claim, and this caused chaos that divided Western Christians. Communities and countries were divided, choosing sides politically based on the Hundred Years' War. The papacies lost money, so attempted to increase taxes. People lost faith in the papacy and Christianity.
Another name for the devil. The popes in Avignon and the popes in Rome both stated that the other pope was this.
The idea that church councils held more authority than the pope, and only a general council of the church could end the Great Schism and reform the church- it was believed by many churchmen. No one knew, however, who could call the meeting. Finally, a group of cardinals met on their own at the Council of Pisa, who deposed both popes and elected a new one, Alexander V. This was disasterous when the two popes refused to step down, and the church was then split between three popes.
Marsiglio of Padua
He was the author of "Defender of the Peace", and began conciliarism. He denied that worldy rulers were subject to spiritual rulers. He believed that the church was only one part of society, and had no business interfering with other parts. He also stated that the church was a community of all the faithful where the clergy had no special authority except administering Church rights, and final authority didn't rest with the pope, but a general council of all church members.
Council of Constance
A solution was found in a council presided over by the HRE, Sigismund. Cardinals, theologians, etc, from all over Europe met to resolve the conflict. They also attempted to reform the church so that the Great Schism would not be repeated. Martin V, an Italian who was not affiliated with any of the former popes, was elected.
An intermediate state where Catholics believe souls are made fit for paradise or heaven by expiatory suffering. Catholics believed indulgences, prayer, and private Masses shortened time in purgatory.
Good deeds and pilgrimages
these were emphasized and became much more popular during late medieval Christianity because of emphasis on a mechanical path to salvation, and distrust of the institutional church, because they did not require clerical involvement
German mystic teacher who believed oneness with God was attainable by all who pursued it wholeheartedly- began mysticism movement in western Germany, which later spread to the Low Countries
Mysticism in the Low Countries, founded by Gerard Groote. He believed that to achieve true spiritual union with God, people must imitate Jesus and lead lives dedicated to serving others. He emphasized inner piety and morality based on Bible, and an avoidance of complications of Church.
Brothers of the Common Life
Gerard Groote's followers of Modern Devotion. They were laypeople who took no formal vows, but were regulated by their own religious rules. Their ideas spread into the Netherlands and Germany, where many Houses of the ______ were formed. They also formed schools where they stressed imitation of Jesus by serving others.
William of Occam and nominalism
A philosopher who challenged scholarly ideas of the Middle Ages. His idea, called _______, asserted that all ideas and philosophies were just names, and only things that were observed with the senses were real. Asserted that the mind could not establish any higher truths, or prove that God was real. Created support for rational and scientific analysis, shook medieval theology
languages common to specific regions, i.e., French, Spanish, German. During the late Middle Ages, it became more common for authors to write their works in vernacular languages instead of Latin.
"The Divine Comedy"
A book written in Italian by Dante Alighieri of Florence. It is about the soul's journey to salvation, a common Medieval theme.
Written for a married woman he loved named Laura, this man's sonnets helped develop the Italian vernacular, increased individuality in writing
a book written by Geoffrey Chaucer are stories that a group of pilgrims tell to entertain eachoter as they travel to the shrine of Saint Thoman Becket in Canterbury. Brought a new sophistication to English vernacular, portrayed all classes of society, and criticized corruption of church officials.
Christine de Pizan
educated Italian woman, smarter than men of her time, spoke French, Italian, and maybe Latin. became a writer to support her 3 children. wrote The Book of the City of Ladies which criticized men's negative views of women, etc.
An artist working in Italy who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body. Increased realism allowed people to identify with religious paintings, his work became inspiration for later Florentine painting. Painted "Lamentation"
The four humors
a traditional theory of physiology in which the state of health depended upon a balance among the four elemental fluids, Yellow bile (summer), Phlegm (winter), Blood (spring), Black bile (fall)- this idea was dropped after it didn't help cure the plague
Clocks, eyeglasses, and paper
inventions of this time- clocks introduced a new conception of time, eyeglasses and paper were expensive
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