Civil War Pensions
administered anualy by the government for civil war veterans ; reformers push for old-age pensions
FRACTION OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; led by James G Blaine; favored reform; against patronage
FRACTION OF THE REPUBLICAN PARTY; led by Roscoe Conkling; favored machine politics; support patronage
Roscoe Conkling
leader of the Stalwarts
if you support a government party, you are rewarded with a government position
James A. Garfield
nominated and elected as president in the election of 1880- REPUBLICAN; he is a HALF BREED; assassinated because he supported the civil service reform in order to defy the stalwarts! (the stalwarts got angry!)
Chester A. Arthur
nominated and elected as vice president in the election of 1880- REPUBLICAN; he is a STALWART; after the assassination of Garfield, Arthur passed the pendleton act (1st civil service measure)
"balancing the ticket"
the republicans nominated both a half-breed and a stalwart in the election of 1880 in order to "balance the ticket" - or get the votes from the supporters of both parties!
Pendleton Act
1883- first civil service measure; required federal jobs to be appointed based of a written exam rather than patronage
James G. Blaine
leader of the Half-Breeds; republican presidential nominee in the election of 1884; LOSES!
"liberal republicans" that were disgruntled at the republicans and decided to support "an honest democrat"
Grover Cleveland
won presidential election of 1884 - he is the "honest democrat"; ILLEGITIMATE CHILD SCANDAL!!; aka the "veto-president";

**wants to reduce the tariff**

runs for president in 1888, where the major issue is the tariff. he wins the popular vote but DOES NOT GET ELECTED.
What was the major issue in the election of 1888?
the tariff
Samuel Burchard
calls the democrats a party of "rum, romanism, and rebellion"
"Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion"
alcoholics, catholics, and rebellious people

coined by Burchard
Benjamin Harrison
won the presidential election of 1888

*supports a high tariff*

his administration is passive - they dont DO anything;
passed the Sherman Anti-trust act to prohibit the restraining of competition by trusts, but it backfired!
Election of 1892
Cleveland wins against Harrison and SPOILER: People's Party's: James B. Weaver
Cleveland's second term
minimal gov't, instituted WILSON-GORMAN TARIFF which supplied the country with modest tariff reducitons
Wabash Case
ruled Granger laws in Illinios unconstitutional (1886) said states cannot control interstate commerce, just intrastate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
1887, banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls. Required that railraods publish their rate schedule and file them with the government and declared that all interstate rail rates must be "resonable and Just"
The Grange
groups of farmers who were socially linked through these "lodges" LOCAL
Farmer's Alliance
Regional version of the grange, formed cooperatives, the argued for neighborly responsabiliity
Mary E. Lease
prominent populist orator: Bloodhounds of Money
Ocala Demands
1889 Alliances created a platform
Tom Watson and Leonidas Polk
demagoges and leaders of Alliances
The Chautauquas
educational sermons held in Chautaqua Lakes, NY
Populist Advocates
small suffering farmer, sharecroppers and tenant farmers. liked free silver and they struggled with the racism issue
Omaha platform
(1892): subtreauries (strengthen co-ops) Abolish national bank, farmers can deposit crop into warehouse where it would be accepted as a collateral->allowing growers to borrow money from the gov't at low rates ,abolish nat'l bank, end absentee ownership of land, direct election of US senators, regulate railroads, graduated income tax, remonetization of silver, rejected laissez-faire
Panic of 1893
Reading Railroad and Philly railroad go bankrupt, collapse of stock market
Overexpansion and weak demand
farmers overproduced and were in debt--deadly combination
Jacob S. Coxey
populist, "Coxey's army" advocated public works programs
recognization of two metals (gold/silver)
mint ratio
16:1 silver:gold
Crime of '73
congress passed law to recognize the existing situation, discontinued silver coinage, upset farmers...
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
required the gov't to purchase but not coin silver and pay for it in gold
Cleveland's repeal
he repealed the sherman silver purchase act and spilt the party into two factions: pro gold/prosilver
Election of 1896
Republicans ran mckinley (no silver, tariffs)
Democrats: william jennings bryan: CROSS OF GOLD, bimetallism
Dingley Tariff
imposed during mckinley's presidency, highest tariff yet! Gold
became president enacted the gold standard!
At the end...
the united states people began to focus on imperialism and foriegn affairs, shift the focus!