Psych 101: Chapters 11, 12, 13
Terms in this set (157)
focuses on the effects of stress and the immune system.
A physical, mental, cognitive, and behavioral response to a challenging or threatening situation.
Can include physical fatigue, recurring illness, over/under eating, smoking/drinking more than usual, mood swings, irritability, depression, anger, memory ad concentration problems.
events that cause a stress reaction.
The effect of unpleasant and undesirable stressors; , Negative stress.
A positive stress that energizes a person and helps a person reach a goal.
causing events may include catastrophes, major life changes, and daily hassles.
daily annoyances of life such as misplacing or losing things.
Expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way.
A negative emotional state that occurs when one is prevented from reaching a goal.
actions meant to harm or destroy.
The less control a person has, the degree of stress.
Losses, rejections, failures, and delays.
Also known as personal frustration, occurs when the goal or need cannot be attained because of internal or personal characteristics.
Ex: someone who wants to be an astronaut might find sever motion sickness prevents him or her from such a goal.
continuation of efforts to get around whatever is causing the frustration. May involve making more intense efforts or changing the style of response.
Ex: anyone who has ever put a coin in the machine but only to find out that the drink does not come out.
1. Push button more forcefully
2. Push several other buttons in order to get some kind of response from the machine.
If neither works then one might kick the machine itself in an act of aggression.
Tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain object, idea or situation.
*poor prediction of behavior unless it's very specific.
3 Components of an attitude
Emotional(how one feels) , behavioral( one's behavior towards the action or object) and cognitive component( one's thinking).
A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, often an ethnic or racial minority.
Behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group.
Forms of prejudice
ageism, sexism, racism, and prejudice toward those who are fat or thin. " all males are dogs"
social group with whom a person identifies; "us."
liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person
Attraction based on geographic closeness.
- Attracted to someone you are near to or have frequent contact with. Sits near you in class
the tendency to like someone who is similar in race, age, education, religion or other demographic characteristic.
Reciprocity of liking
tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
The more repeated times w'ere around a person, the more we tend to like them because of positive interaction.
The notion that people are most likely to form relationships with those who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness
Sternberg 3 components of love
intimacy, passion, and commitment
Warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship; ( friendship) - A sense of having a close emotional tie with another.
Emotional and sexual arousal a person feels toward the other person.
* not simply about sex, may include loving looks, hugs and holding hands.
- The decision one makes about a relationship. Short-term decison might be " I think I'm in love." However, long-term could be " I want to be with this person for the rest of my life."
Intimacy and passion.
* ideal relationship begins with liking, then becomes romantic love as passion is added to the mix, and finally becomes a more enduring form of love as commitment is made.
Passion only ( possibly just the sex holding hands or loving looks)
Passion and commitment.( showing one you like them and you wanna spend the rest of your life with them)
commitment only ( one doesn't like their special someone anymore but stays committed regardless)
Intimacy and commitment.
* people who like each other; feel emotionally close to each other, and understand one another's motives have made a commitment to live together, usually in a marriage relationship.
ideal form of love that many people see as the ultimate goal. Includes intimacy, passion and commitment.
People are less likely to provide needed help when they are in groups than when they are alone.
Diffusion of responsibility
In emergency situations, the larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility an individual bystander feels to help.
acting or behaving in a certain and often negative manner because others are doing it
group members feels its more important to maintain group cohesiveness rather than critically evaluate facts when making decisions.
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
value of judgments of a person's moral and ethical behavior.
Enduring characteristics with which each person person is born with.
Big 5 theory
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism. (OCEAN)
A person who seems to thrive on changes in his or her work, lifestyle, and relationships.
- Willing to try new things and be open to new experiences. ( creative, artistic, curious, imaginative, nonconforming)
A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
A personality descriptor indicating the "outgoing" nature of some individuals. (talkative, optimistic, sociable, affectionate)
People who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention
Emotional style of a person that may range from easy going, friendly, and likable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant
degree of emotional stability or instability.
* A PERSONALITY TRAIT REFERRING TO HOW EMOTIONAL OR ANXIOUS AN INDIVIDUAL IS AS OPPOSED TO BEING EVEN-TEMPERED OR SELF-ASSURED
Founder of Modern Psychology.
Freud's term for what is stored in your memory that you are not presently aware of but can access
Freud's term for what you are presently aware of one's surroundings and perception.
Part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious.
* We do what makes us happy.
In Freud's theory, the instinctual (and sexual) life force that, working on the pleasure principle and seeking immediate gratification, energizes the id.
Demands immediate gratification of its urges.
* principle in which id functions.
that part of the unconscious mind that acts as a conscience
this is the ideal or desired behavior of the ego according to the superego.
Balance between pleasure and morality
According the Freud, the attempt by the ego to satisfy both the id and the superego while still considering the reality of the situation.
* Principle by which the ego functions.
A defense mechanism that refers to the unconscious forgetting of anxiety-producing memories.
Ex: Anna, who was sexually abused as a child, cannot remember the abuse at all.
Defense mechanism by which people refuse to accept reality.
Ex: Ben is an alcoholic who denies being an alcoholic.
Defense mechanism by which people divert sexual or aggressive feelings for one person onto another person.
Ex: Sandra gets reprimanded by her boss and goes home to angrily pick a fight with her husband.
A defense mechanism where one reverts to an earlier stage of development.
Ex: A 40 yr old man sick with the flu, assumes a fetal position in bed & calls his mother for a bowl of her chicken soup.
A defense mechanism that refers to the process of developing socially acceptable explanations for inappropriate behavior or thoughts.
Ex: " if I don't have breakfast, I can have that piece of cake later on without hurting my diet"
a defense mechanism that uses reasoning to block out emotional stress and conflict.
A defense mechanism that involves attributing one's own threatening feelings, motives, or impulses to another person or group.
Ex; Keisha is attracted to her sister's husband but denies this and believes the husband is attracted to her.
General Adaptation Syndrome( GAS)
Sequence of physiological reactions the body goes through when adapting to a stressor.
When the body first reacts to a stressor, the sympathetic nervous system is first activated. Adrenal Glands increases heart rate, blood pressure, and supply of blood sugar, resulting in a burst of energy.
As the stress continues, the body settles into sympathetic division activity, continues to releases the stress harmones that help the body fight off, or resist, the stressor.
A harmful third phase of the stress response, in which stress exceeds the body's ability to recover. however, when stressor ends, parasympathetic division division activates and the body attempts to replenish its resources.
Optimistic explanatory style
Optimists tend to look for positive outcomes, whereas pessimists seem to expect the worst.
process of explaining one's own behavior and behavior of others.
Post traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
Type A personality
workaholic, competitive, ambitious, hate to waste time , easily annoyed; more likely to have health issues such as a heart disease, especially the more hostile the individual is
Type B personality
Personality characterized by relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavior.
Type C personality
pleasant but repressed person, who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult.
A cognitive evaluation of a potentially stressful event to determine whether its effect is positive, irrelevant, or negative.
Deciding how to deal with a potentially stressful situation.
affect how one assesses a stressor, the coping strategies used, and possible health outcomes.
optimists tend to look for positive outcomes, whereas pessimists seem to expect the worse
associated with controlling mood or emotional reactions; can be a learned skill through alternative thinking, downward social comparison, relaxation, and correcting faulty thinking.
Lazaru's cognitive-mediational theory of emotions
suggests an individual's appraisal of a stressor is a major factor in determining how stressful that stressor becomes.
* result of appraisal determines level of stress and emotional reaction.
hardy personality, appear to be like type A but less prone to heart disease; appear to thrive due to 3 factors: sense of commitment, control, and seeing stressors as a challenge.
is affected by status of acculturation( adapting to a new, different, or often dominant culture) and method chosen to adapt.
original identity maintained but forms positive relationships with members of dominant culture.( lowest stress)
individual gives up old culture and completely adopts ways of majority ( moderate stress)
majority culture is rejected and original cultural identity is maintained( high stress)
does not maintain contact with original culture or join majority culture( greatest stress)
actions that people can take to master, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the effects of stressors
involves working or eliminate the stressor itself
involves changing the way a person feels or emotionally reacts to a stressor.
changing one's own behavior to more closely match the actions of others.
Change of behavior in response to an explicit request from another person or group.
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
changing one's behavior at the direct order of an authority figure. (Milgram study about electrical shocking)
The quality and quantity of the work produced or the services provided by the work unit as a whole can be affected by social influence.
occurs when people do no work hard when others are also working, easy to " hide" in a group.
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others= positive influence
lowering of performance on a given task in the pressence of others - usually a task that is not well reshearsed= negative influence
persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a bigger one.
Ex:Neighbor ask you to babysit their daughter once you agree, they adds that you water their garden.
Persuasive technique involving making an unreasonably large request before making the small request we're hoping to have granted.
Ex: If the neighbor first asked you to take care of his dogs and cats in your home. After, you refused to do so, neighbor might ask you to at least water the plants which one would probably do.
getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment.
Ex: Commitment to buy a car at a low price but it's quickly followed by the addition of other costs such as taxes and fees, extended warranties, additional options causing the buyer to spend more money that originally intended.
a sales technique in which the persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the person can make a decision.
*" But wait-that's not all! if you act now, we'll send you this 15 piece set of genuine faux carving knives as a bonus!"
Norm of reciprocity
Assumption that if someone does something for a person, that person should do something for the other in return
Fundamental attribution error
The tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
An emotional discomfort as the result of engaging in behavior that is inconsistent with personal cognition.
Any act that is socially constructive or some way beneficial to another person or group.
an expectation that causes one to act in ways that make that expectation come true.
Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
A component of attitude is the way a person feels toward the object, person, or situation.
Ex: some people might feel that country music is fun and uplifting.
the action that a person takes in regard to the person, object, or situation
Ex: a person who feels that country music is fun is likely to turn to a country music station on the car radio, buy country music CDs, or go to a country music festival.
The way a person thinks about himself, object or situation.
Ex: country music lover might believe that country music is superior to other forms of music.
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
The process by which a person uses behavior and appearance of others to form attitudes about them.
Mental process of categorizing people in groups based on shared characteristics, Automatic, often unconscious
cause of behavior is assumed to come form external sources.
Ex: If John is late, his lateness might be explained by heavy traffic or car problems.
cause of a behavior is assumed to come from within the individual.
Ex: might assume John was late because his personality includes being careless of his and other people's time.
A way of explaining others' behavior by either their disposition or their situation.
Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits.
Blaming an innocent person or a group for one's own troubles
Realistic conflict theory
The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination
- the effect that people's awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior.
Social Identity theory
suggests 3 processes are responsible for the formation of a person's identity within a social group ( categorization, identification, and comparison)
Social cognitive theory
suggests that prejudice is an attitude formed as others are formed.
Our perception of the beauty of another person.
- People tend to be attracted to those they seem physically attractive.
The more people find they have in common with others such as attitudes, beliefs and interests-the more they tend to be attracted to them
characteristics that one person has that may fulfill a void of need in the other person, "opposites attract"
helping someone with no expectation of reward and often personal risk.
(birth to 1 yr and a half) psychosexual pleasure is from stimulation of mouth - particurally sucking, feeding and making noises with the mouth.
- Key conflict is weaning—withdrawing from the breast or bottle.
Later this stage will affect ability to form interpersonal attachment, tendency to take charge or passive, and tendency to use forms of aggression, such as sarcasm.
(1-3 years) Anus is associated with pleasure. Toilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly. Has two outcomes-anal retentive (obsessions with cleanliness, perfection and control) and anal expulsive (messy, disorganized and dirty)
(ages three to six) the attention witches to the genitals as boys and girls learn that they are differences between the genders and become aware of the similarities and differences between them and their parents.
6-11 yrs; sexual instincts die down, superego further develops, additional social skills are acquired from family and other influences.
Later, this will affect ability to get along with others.
Freud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).
Focus of conflicts-sexual relationship with partner.
Later, it will affect immature love or indiscriminate hate, uncontrollable working or inability to work.
Unconditional positive regard
positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached.
An individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one's inner thoughts and feelings
believed in both a personal conscious and a collective unconscious that holds universal human theories called archetypes.
based on work of Freud; primary focus is on role of unconscious mind.
According to Freud, failure to move forward from one psychosexual stage to another as expected.
Freud's term for both the theory of personality and therapy based on it.
Conditional positive regard
positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish
warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one's life.
In Roger's theory of personality, the self a person would ideally like to be.
one's perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities
an individual's awareness of his or her own personal characteristics and level of functioning.
A sense of one's identity and personal worth
Self actualization tendency
need to fulfill one's own potential.
Rorschach inkblot test
A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
Thematic Apperception test ( TAT)
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
Existing in the mind or relating to one's own thoughts, opinions, emotions, etc.; personal, individual, based on feelings
A group's expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members' attitudes and behaviors.
students have to work together to reach a specific goal.
Conditional positive regard
positive regard that's given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.
ways of dealing with stress through unconsciously distorting one's perception of reality.