Social Work Licensing Test

licensing
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Social Workers shouldn't engage in physical contact with clients when there is a possibility of psychological harm to a client as a result of the contact (ex.cradling/caressing)
True
Social Workers assume the responsibility for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries
True
Should a social worker provide clinical services to individuals that they have had a prior sexual relationship?
No!
Social Workers should be alert to and avoid_____________ that interfere with the exercise of professional discretion and impartial judgement.
conflicts of interest
Termination of Services
Should only be done under the following guidelines:
1. Not paying an overdue balance as stated in a contractual arrangement
2. Client does not pose imminent threat to themselves or others
3. If the clinical and other consequences have been discussed with client.
True or False: It is unethical to still treat clients when services are no longer needed.
True
When should a social worker make reasonable efforts to ensure continuity of services?
Interrupting Factors:
1. Unavailability
2. Relocation
3. Illness
4. Disability
5. Death
Ethical Dilemma
When a social worker must decide between two viable solutions that each have a similar ethical value.

*Instances where a SW's ethical obligations conflict with agency policies or laws and regulations, SW's should make an effort to resolve issue that reflects the code of ethics.
Steps in Solving Ethical Dilemma
1. Identify ethical standard being compromised.
2. Determine whether it is an ethical issue or dilemma.
3. Weigh ethical issues against code of ethics
4. Suggest modifications to the prioritized ethical values that are central to the dilemma
5. Implement modifications
6. Monitor for new ethical issues.
What are the six core values of social work?
SSDIIC
1. Service
2. Social justice
3. Dignity and Worth of Person
4. Importance of Human Relationships
5.Integrity
6. Competence
Social worker may disclose confidential information when __________.
Appropriate with valid consent from a client or a person legally authorized to consent on behalf of a client.
Social workers should protect the confidentiality of all information, but does not apply to ________.
Situations that are serious, foreseeable, and imminent harm to a client or other identifiable person. In these situations, the least amount of info possible should be disclosed to achieve the desired purpose.
Social Workers should inform clients, the extent possible, when ________.
Confidential information is disclosed.
When providing counseling services to families, couples, or groups, social workers should ___________.
Seek agreement among the parties to preserve confidentiality and that not everyone will honor agreements.
During court proceedings, SW's should _______.
Protect client confidentiality to the fullest extent possible.
Subpoeona
Not the same as a court order. Social worker should respond, but not turn over records until court orders ask you to do so.
True or false. SW's can disclose identifying information when discussing clients with consultants.
False. Unless a client has consented to disclosure or there is a compelling need to, confidential information should not be discussed with consultants.
True or false. Deceased clients are not granted the same confidentiality as clients that are alive.
False. Confidentiality of deceased clients should also be in accordance with the code of ethics.
True or false. If a client sues a social worker, a social worker cannot defend themselves.
False. They can and have the right to release client information as part of their defense. However, even in that case, only specific information should be disclosed.
Client records should be transferred or disposed of in manner that ___________.
Protects the client's confidentiality and is consistent with state statues governing records and social work licensure.
True or false. Clients should have reasonable access to their records.
True
Social workers should only restrict records when _____________.
In exceptional cases when there is compelling evidence that access would cause harm to the client. Rationale of this should also be documented.
Minor Records
1. Parents may have access depending on age of minor and type of treatment setting.
2. SW's working with Parents of minors with joint or limited custody should be aware of all parties with access and/or consent to release.
3. SW's must be knowledgable of ethical standards and laws relating to protection/release of minor records.
SW's should only restrict a client's right to self determination when ___________.
A client's actions or potential actions pose a serious, foreseeable, and imminent threat to themselves or others.
Informed Consent
Verbal permission in the event that client may not be literate or have difficulty understanding language used in the practice setting. Instances when a client may lack capacity to provide informed consent, should protect client's interested by seeking an appropriate third party.
Consent vs Assent
Consent-Obtained by responsible third party
Assent-Obtained by client. Willingness to participate
Minor Consent
1. Do not have the same rights as adults in record confidentiality because parents may have access to it.
2. Even when parental consent is needed in treatment, SWs should explain process to minors and seek their assent
3. Make clear their limits to self-determination according to laws
Emancipation
A legal process that ends the rights and responsibilities of parents and guardians. Can be partial or complete. Emancipation allows them to enter contracts, sue others, make health care decisions, but does not allow them to get a driver's license or drink.
Permanency Planning
Approach to child welfare that children need permanence to thrive. Focus on placing them in permanent situations.
True or False. Adults over the age of 18 are presumed to be competent about their right to self-determination unless legal proceeding say otherwise.
True
True or False. A client's right to self-determination shouldn't be hindered if they are a threat to themselves or others.
False. Breeching confidentiality might be an issue, but it is imperative to minimize the amount of information disclosed.
Empathic Communication
1.Establishes rapport
2. Start where the client is
3. Increase the level at which clients explore themselves
4. Respond to client's nonverbal messages
5. Decrease defenensiveness
6. Diffuse anger
Transference
Refers to redirection of client feelings for a significant person to social worker.
ex. Anger towards family member misdirected at Social worker.
Can be a parallel of what is going on with client and sw.
Countertransference
Social worker's feelings being redirected toward a client (Emotional entanglement with a client)
ex. A social worker's anger misdirected to client.
Can be a parallel of what is occurring when a supervisor responds to a social worker in the same manner that a social worker responds to client .
Can be a parallel of what is going on with client and sw.
Helping
The core of the helping process is acceptance of a client and the use of objective feedback.
Interaction
Verbal and nonverbal behavior
Self-disclosure
Can be harmless, but can also be self-serving. Should only be used to help CLIENT therapeutically. Can be well meaning, but may blur professional lines. Should only be used for no other outcome than to help client process feelings.
Burnout
A state of physical, emotional, psychological, and/or spiritual exhaustion. Emotional fatigue(Ex. cynicism)
Secondary Trauma
Relates to the behaviors and emotions that result from knowledge about traumatizing events experienced by clients and the stress resulting from helping or wanting to help them. (ex. angry outbursts, insomnia, chronic irritability)
Compassion Fatigue
Syndrome consisting of a combination of all the symptoms of secondary trauma and burnout.
Parallel Process
An unconscious identification with a client and can be used as an important part of the supervisory process.
Evaluations
Should be conducted regularyly to see how to improve the quality and quantity of work being performed. Should identify strengths and weaknesses.
Approaches to Professional Development
Consultation
Coaching
Communities of Practice
Mentoring
Reflective Supervision
Technical Assistance
Supervision
Administrative-aims to ensure that a social worker is accountable to the public
Educational-learning alliance between supervisor and social worker
Supportive-focused on increasing performance by decreasing job-related stress
Consultation
Not the same as a supervisor. Someone with considerable knowledge, but no authority. Advice is used for consideration. Usually from an outside agency.
Peer Support
When a social worker uses colleagues for feedback or assistance with professional activities. (ex. mentoring). Assists with professional development, but does not have formal responsibility or evaluation of one's performance.e
Biopsychosocial-spiritual-social
A tool that provides information on the on the current/presenting issue or issues.
Biological portion of Biopsychosocial-spiritual-social
Assess a client's medical history developmental history, current medications, substance abuse history, and family history of medical illness.
Psychological section of Biopsychosocial-spiritual-social
Assesses a client's present psychiatric illness or symptoms, history of the current psychiatric illness or symptoms, past or current psychosocial stressors, and mental status.
Social section of Biopsychosocial-spiritual-social
Focuses on client systems and unique client context, and may identify strengths and/or resources available for treatment planning. (ex. sexual identity issues concerns and support systems. Also includes information about a client's spiritual beliefs).
Collateral sources
Includes family, friends, other agencies, physicians, etc. Used to get vital information for treatment and when information obtained from client are questionable. SWs should always assess the credibility of the information and get informed consent from client before accessing these sources.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA)
Client records are protected by this act, but can also be subpoenas and court ordered.
Educational Records can be accessed to ___________.
Determine school performance and see if problems at home are also being recorded in the school setting. Can provide information for when problems or difficulties began. Can be used to diagnose adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities if they were never diagnosed in school.
Employment records can be accessed to _________.
Help SW construct client work history and income. May also help SW determine if client needs assistance accessing TANF, SNAP, etc.
Medical records can be accessed to ______.
Help SW determine if client problems are a result of their health issues or and understand the impact of present and current medical problems on client functioning.
Psychological records can be access to ________.
Help SW as they have the results to psychological testing that has been completed and if there are any diagnoses. Also helps sw see if there are any prescribed medications or alternate treatments.
Sexual history includes________.
Gathering information on past partners, practices, protection/past history of STD's. Prevention of pregnancy if applicable. Dissatisfaction and disfunction should be determined by first ruling medical before psychological.
Genogram
Graphic representation of a family tree that displays the interaction of generations within a family. Analyzes, family, emotional, and social relationships. Analyzing family history can be used to relate to a current problem or issue being experienced by the client currently .
Problem identification
Used in micro and macro practice. Determining the issue to be addressed and determining the problem to be targeted for intervention. Problem should be viewed as person-in-environment and using strengths-based approach.
Identifying Client Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Deficiency needs (Needs related to physiological, security, social, and esteem) before growth needs (self-actualization)
SWs should always address medical and substance issues first.
Prioritization can be client desires and motivation, agency setting, resources, funding, etc., but also ensure treatment plan is being regularly evaluated.
SW must always recognize if client actions are due to a medical/substance abuse issue before attributing them to psychological factors.
Regardless, client right to self determination is more important, but SWs should still provide options.
Beck Depression Inventory
21 item test, multiple choice, assess presence and degree of depression in adolescents and adults.
Minnesota Multi phasic Personality Inventory
an objective verbal inventory personality test. Consists of 550 statements, 16 are repeated.
Myers Briggs Type Indicator
Forced choice, self report inventory that classify individuals in four dimensions
1.Attitude towards the world- Extraverted (E) or Introverted (I)
2. Perception- Sensation (S) or Intuition (I)
3. Processing-Thinking (T) OR Feeling (F)
4. Judging(J) and Perceiving(P)
Rorshach Inkblot Test
Used to asses perceptual reactions and other psychological functioning (most widely used)
Stanford-Binet intelligence scale
Testing of cognitive abilities. Provides verbal, performance, and full scale scores for children and adults.
Thematic Apperception Test
Projective test that lists a series of pictures of ambigious scenes where clients are asked to describe what is happening. Identifies clients current needs, motives, emotions, and conflicts (unconscious and conscious)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale
Designed as a measure of a child's intellectual and cognitive ability (Four index scales)
Communication
Can be verbal and nonverbal. Roleplaying is a good way to assess and enhance client's communication skills.
Silence is a form of communication and is good for clients who have experienced trauma or upset or angry.
Strengths
Can be assesed in the following ways.
1. Cognitive and appraisal skills(ex.common sense)
2. Defenses and coping mechanisms(ex.self soothing)
3. Temperamental and dispositional factors(ex.self esteem)
4. Interpersonal Skills and Supports (ex. ability to develop/maintain good relationships)
5. Other factors-supportive institution like church/income
What are few indicators that client may be hesitant to change?
Limited information provided.
Silence/minimal talking
False promising
Not keeping appointments
Payment Delays

Clients may be frightened by changed or lack the readiness. Regardless, SW should assess the barriers.
Ego Strength
Ability of the ego to effectively deal with the demands of the id, superego, and reality. Basis for resilience. Those with positive ego strength are less likely to have psychiatric crises.
Group Work
Method of working with two or more people for personal growth. SW takes on different roles throughout the group process.

Beginning-SW identifies purpose of the group and her role. Convene, organize, and set a plan. Members may be distant until they can develop relationships.

Middle-Almost all group work will occur during this stage. Relationships are strengthened so tasks be worked on. Less involvement of group leaders.

End-Group reviews its accomplishments. Feelings associated with termination are addressed.

*Diffusion of responsibility-some will not take action in a group because they assume others will take responsibility.
Types of People in a Group
Energizer-prods the group to action
Encourager-prasises, agrees, and accepts the contributions of others
Assessing Community Functioning
Assess current assets-may also help to look at other communities that have successfully addressed similar problems.
Develop and informed understanding of the gaps or needs within a community.
Methods of data collection through interviews, observation, and surveys.
Assessing Functioning of Organizations
Analyzed through productivity, turnover, stability, cohesion, etc. How the organization runs as it relates to organizationla structures, processes, and outcomes.

Structural indicators-features like training, equipment, office space, etc.

Organizational Processes-effort rather than effect.

Outcome assessments-the extent to which tangible defined differences have been made. Essential, but these assessments can be difficult to make due to threats to internal validity.
Internal Validity
Confidence that one thing (the independent variable) causes another (dependent variable). Intervention or treatment is often the independent variable.
External Validity
Ability to generalize findings to the other settings, populations, etc. It may not be possible to achieve the same results if the characteristics were different (ex. different community, income level, age range).
Risk Factors of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse
Family-others users in the family, family dysfunction, poor parenting, negative family rituals.
Social-Peer use. Social/cultural norms. Substances are readily available.
Psychiatric-Depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, health disorders, feelings of desperation
Behavioral-Use of other substances, aggressive behavior in childhood, rebelliousness, academic or behavioral problems.
Different Models Used to Explain Causes of Substance Abuse
Biopsychosocial
Medical
Self-medication model
Family and environmental model
Social Model
Biopsychosocial model
One of the five models used to explain causes of substance abuse. It includes hereditary predisposition, emotional/psychological problems, social influences, and environmental problems.
Medical model
One of the five models used to explain causes of substance abuse. Addiction is considered a chronic, progressive, relapsing, and potentially fatal medical disease.
Genetic-inherited vulnerability
Brain Reward Mechanisms-Substances reinforce continued use by latching onto the brain to produce pleasurable feelings.
Altered Brain Chemistry-Substances reinforce continued use by latching onto the brain to produce pleasurable feelings.
Self-medication model
One of the five models used to explain causes of substance abuse. Substances relieve symptoms of psychiatric disorder.
Family and environmental model
One of the five models used to explain causes of substance abuse. Behaviors shaped by peers and family, personality factors, physical and sexual abuse, etc.
Social Model
One of the five models used to explain causes of substance abuse. Drug use is learned and reinforced by continued use from role models. (ex. social, economic, political factors, etc.)
Non-substance related disorder
A new category in the DSM 5 based on behavior addictions. Ex. gambling disorder.
Goals of Treatment of Substance Abuse
1. Abstinence from substances
2. Maximizing life functioning
3. Preventing or reducing the frequency and severity of relapse.
Stages of Treatment of Substance Abuse
1. Stabilization-focusing on establish abstinence
2. Rehabilitation/habilitation-focus on remaining substance-free.
3. Maintenance-focus on stabilizing gains made in treatment, relapse, prevention, and termination.
Delirium tremens
A symptom associated with alchol withdrawl. Symptoms include hallucinations, rapid respiration, temperature abnormalities, and body tremors

Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome are disorders associated with chronic abuse of alcohol.
Treatment approaches to Substance Abuse
1. Medication-assisted treatment interventions
2. Psychosocial or psychological interventions
3. Behavioral therapies
4. Self-help groups
Comorbid
Existing with or at the same time
Contraindicated
not recommended or safe to use because of serious consequences
Delusion
false, fixed belief despite evidence to the contrary
Disorientation
confusion with regard to person, time, or place
Dissociation
Disturbance or change in the usually integrative functions of memory, identity, perception, or consciousness
Endogenous depression
Depression caused by a biochemical imbalance rather than a psychosocial stressor or external factors
Exogenous depression
Depression caused by external events of psychosocial stressors
Folie a deux
shared delusion
Hallucinations
hearing, seeing, smelling, or feeling something that is not real
Hypomanic
elevated, expansive, or irritable mood is less sever than manic symptoms
Post-morbid
subsequent to the onset of an illness
Premorbid
prior to the onset of an illness
Psychotic
experiencing delusions or hallucinations
Hydrocodone/acetaminophne
Most popular painkiller
Levothyroxine sodium
Used to treat hypothyoidsim, when the thyroid gland does not produce enough of the hormone.
Lisinopril
High blood pressure medication.
Metroprolol
treats high blood pressure and reduce risk of additional heart attacks
Simvastatin
prescribed to treat high cholesterol and is typically recommended with diet changes.
Cycle of Violence
Phase 1:Tension Building
Phase 2: Battering Incident-shortest period of the cycle
Phase 3: Honeymoon-apologies/false promises of never occurring again.
Social Exchange Theory
Based on the idea of totaling potential benefits and losses to determine behavior.
Exploitation
Treating someone badly to benefit from his or her resources or work. SWs have ethical mandates to not exploit clients, supervises, students, and others who come in contact with their work.
Emotional & Psychological symptoms of trauma
Shock ,denial, disbelief
Anger, irritability, mood swings
Guilt, shame, self0blame
Feeling sad or hopeless
Confusion, difficulty concentrating
Anxiety & Fear
Withdrawing from others
Feeling disconnected or numb
Physical symptoms of trauma
Insomnia or nightmares
Being startled easily
Racing heartbeat
Aches and pains
Fatigue
Difficulty concentrating
Edginess and agitation
Muscle tension
Stages of Grief
1. Denial and isolation-"this can't be happening"
2. Anger-"why me?"
3. Bargaining-negotiating with oneself or higher power to change what has happened.
4. Depression-period of sadness
5. Acceptance-at peace with what has occurred.
Roles of a Social Worker
Consultant
Advocate
Case Manager
Catalyst
Broker
Mediator
Facilitator
Instructor
Mobilizer
Clinician
Risk Factors of Suicide
Lives alone; lack of social supports
Substance abuse
Change in eating/sleeping habits
Angry outbursts
Stages of Crises
1. Precrisis-acknowledgin that a threat is real and how a client can protect themselves.
2. Crisis-can be short or long. Meet client needs during this stage.
3. Postcrisis-Crisis will end and recovery will begin. New coping skills and strategies will emerge to prevent reoccurrence.
Steps in the Intervention Process (Seven Steps to Planned Change)
(Eat Apple Pie in Every Town Fridays)

Engaging-Determining why treatment was sought.

Assessing-Gathering essential information and identifying collateral contacts.

Planning-Client and SW develop understanding of client's preferred lifestyle. Goals are developed to lead into this lifestyle.

Intervening-Client is getting support network to realize continued progress and change. Also bringing up issues that may be hindering the goal from developing.

Evaluating-Subjective reports of client progress are bing used to see what goals have been, need to be amended, or added.

Terminating-Client is reflecting on what has been achieved and anticipate what supports are in place if problems arise again.

Follow-up-SW follows up with progress.
Goals of Crisis Intervention
A process of actively influencing the psychosocial functioning of clients during a period of disequilibrium or crisis.

1. Relieve the impact of stress
2. Return a client to a previous level of functioning
3. Help strengthen coping mechanisms during the crisis period.

Time frame of a crisis is limited.
Behaviorist Learning Theory (Pavlov, Skinner)
Learning is viewed through change in behavior and a stimuli in the external environment.
Cognitive Learning Theory (Piaget)
Learning is viewed through internal mental processes and cognitive structures.
Humanistic Learning Theory (Maslow)
Learning is viewed as client's activities are aimed to fulfill their full potential, cognitive, and external needs.
Social/Situational (Bandura)
Learning is obtained between clients and their environment and interactions or observations in social contexts.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Changing patterns in thinking or behavior that are responsible for client's difficulties.
Conflict Resolution
1. Recognition of an existing or potential conflict
2. An assessment of the conflict situation
3. The selection of an appropriate strategy
4. Intervention
Benefits to Group Work
Achieve personal change
Foster relationships/gain support

*A SW should use the group as a helping agent and not make decisions for the group.
Community Practice Approaches
Orientation stage-community members first meet
Conflict stage-arguments may occur and eventually resolved.
Emergence stage-begin to see and agree on a course of action
Reinforcement stage-decisions made and justification of decisions.
Advance directives
Legal way of indicating that a person has given the legal rights to a designated person to make decisions on his or her behalf should that individual become incompetent to do so on their own.
Four Purposes of Consultation
1. Defining the purpose of the consultation
2. Specifying the consultant's role.
3. Clarifying the nature of problem
4. Outlining the consultation process
Definition and Benefit/Disadvantages of Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Using professionals from various backgrounds of knowledge (ex. medical, psychiatry, education, etc.)
Benefit to clients because of the various backgrounds of knowledge and new ways of thinking. Disadvantegeous because different ways of thinking may cause dysfunction.
Definition and Benefit/Disadvantages of Intradisplinary Collaboration
ThrProfessionals from the same background of knowledge (ex. group of social workers)

Benefits-cohesive thinking and same code of ethics
Disadvantages-Same patterns of thinking and little new ideas.
Three methods of Service Coordination
1. Integration of services
2. Wrap-around services
3. Case management
SOAP (case noting)
S-Subjective-client's report of how things have been going.
O-Objective-vital signs, physical documentation of problems. Obvious/visual indication of problems.
A-Assessment-SW pulls S & O and compiles findings.
P-Plan-what will be done as a consequence of assessment
Informed Consent for Services
Explaining to client the alternative services, payment expected, confidentiality notices, etc.
Consent for Release of Information
Consent form that should be signed by client prior to release information to a third-party.
Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders
A legal decision to not have CPR done to the client in the event that they may need.
Active listening
Sitting straight up, asking open ended questions
Questioning
Using open/closed ended questions to get relevant information
Reflecting/Validating
Showing empathetic understanding
Paraphrasing/Clarifying
Rephasing what the client has said in order to join together information.
Reframing
Using the clients statements, changing the perspective of what has been said to offer different thinking patterns.
Manifest vs Latent content
Manifest-concrete information in words.
Latent-underlying meaning of what has been said.
Types of Observation
Complete Participant-living the experience as participant
Participant as Observer-interacting with those who are participating.
Observer as participant-limtied relationship with others participating.
Complete observer-removed from activity-observer only
Universalization
Generalization of behavior
Clairifcation
reformulating problem in client's words
Confrontation
Calling attention to something
Interpretation
Pulling together patterns of behavior to get a new understanding.
Continuum of Readiness
Precontemplation-client is unaware, unable, unwilling to change behavior

Contemplation-client is uncertain to changing behaviors. willing to look at pros and cons in this stage .

Preparation-clarifying goals and support efforts to change

Action-putting new ideas into action
Formative evaluations
Ongoing process that allows for feedback during service delivery.
Summative evaluations
Occur at the end of services. Checking to see if goals were met.
Single Subject Designs
Baselines-(AB)
A-Baseline. Behavior before treatment
B-Behavior after treatment

Used to see cause and effect of treatment.
Benefits of Scales and Instruments
Existing scales and instruments may have undergone extensive testing, increasing their validity.
Threats to Internal Validity
History
Maturation
Selection Biases
Testing
Statistical regression
Instrumentation
Mortality or attrition
Cost-benefit analysis
Determining financial costs of operating a program as compared with the fiscal benefits of its outcomes.
Cost-effectiveness analysis
Does not produce a cost-benefit ratio, but will focus on the most financially efficient way to achieve outcome.
Cost-effectiveness analysis
Considers the benefits that are not addressed in monetary outcomes.
Outcome assessment
Process of determining whether or not a program achieved its intended goal
Piaget's Theory
Sensirimotor-0-2-signs and signals
Preoperational-2-7-symobls, concrete to abstract thinking
Concrete Operational-7-11-beginnings of abstract thought
Formal Operational-11-maturity-higher level of abstraction. Planning for the future
Attachment Theory
Bowlby-attachment is a lasting psychological connectedness between human beings that can be understood within an evolutionary context.

Stranger anxiety-5-9 months. stops by age two
Separation anxiety-begins 6 to 8 months, peaks age 14 to 18 months, and generally resolved 24 months to 36 months.
Basic Human Needs
Deficiency-d-needs
Physiological- biological needs like food, water, oxygen
safety-being safe from harm and danger
social-friendship/intimacy and affection
esteem-firmly stable level of self-respect
Growth needs-being needs or b-needs (self-actualization-ongoing process. acting consistently with who one is)

Based on Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
From Top to Bottom:

Self-Actualization
Esteem
Social
Safety
Physiological

Used to prioritize client needs
Disassociation
Process that enables a person to split mental functions in a manner that allows them to express forbidden impulses without taking responsibility. (ex. daydreaming)
Displacement
Directing an impulse towards something that the actual source of anger (ex. kicking a dog because one is angry at their boss)
Projection
Attributed one's own attitudes towards an external object or person.
Undoing
A person uses words or actions to symbolically reverse or negate unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or actions.
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
Eight stages with two outcomes. Successful completion of stage will exude positive progression. Failure to successfully complete stage results in more unhealthy personality and sense of self.
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Ego Integrity vs Despair
Trust vs. Mistrust
Stage 1 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
Birth to 1 year
Positive: Developed trust will give child confidence and security
Negative: If undeveloped, inability to trust and sense of fear.
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Stage 2 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
1-3
Asserting independence
Postive: If independence is encouraged and supported, they become confident and secure
Negative: If criticized and controlled, they lack self-esteem and become dependent on others.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Stage 3 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
3-6 years old
Plan activities, play games, and intimate activities
Postive: If child is allowed to assert themselves, they will feel secure to lead and make decisions
Negative: If they are not allowed to, they lack self-initiatve
Industry vs. Inferiority
Stage 4 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
Six to puberty
Begin to develop a sense of pride
Postive: if that feeling is reinforced, they will feel confident in their ability to achieve goals
Negative: If undeveloped, they fail to reach their potential and doubt their abilities.
Identity vs Role Confusion
Stage 5 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
Adolescence
Becoming more independent and begin to look at the future
Postive: Forming self identity
Negative: Confused of their role in the world.
Intimacy vs Isolation
Stage 6 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
Young adulthood
Individuals begin to share themselves more intimately
Positive: Comfortable relationships and sense of commitment
Negative: Fearing commitment and relationships. Loneliness and depression.
Generativity vs Stagnation
Stage 7 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
Middle adulthood
Settling down and becoming part of the big picture.
Positive: Become product member of society
Negative: Feelings of being stagnant and feel unproductive.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Stage 8 in Erikson's Psychosocial Model
Senior Citizens
Slow down and explore life as retired people
Positive: Develop sense of integrity if they are satisfied with their lives.
Negative: If feelings of unproductively, depression and hopelessness
Stages of Group Work
1. Pre affiliation-development of trust
2. Power and control-struggles for individual autonomy and group identification
3. Intimacy-utilizing self in service of the group
4. Differentiation-acceptance of each other as distinct individuals
5. Separation/Termination-independence
Group think
When a group makes faulty decisions because of group pressure.
Group polarization
Occurs during group decision making when discussion strengthens a dominant point of view and results in a shift to a more extreme position than any of the members would adopt on their own.
Genograms
Diagrams of family relationships beyond a family tree that helps visualize heredity patterns and psychological factors.
Entropy
Closed, disorganized, stagnant
Equifinality
arriving at the same end from different beginnings
Negative entropy
exchange of energy and resources between systems that promote growth and transformation
Suprasystem
an entity that is served by a number of component systems organized in interacting relationships
Model of Cultural/Racial/Ethnic Identity
Pre-encounter-may not be aware
Encounter-has an encounter that provokes thought of the role of cultural, racial, and ethnic identity.
Immersion-Emersion-Period of exploration
Internalization & Commitment-secure sense of identity and comfortable socializing within and outside the group.
Family Life Cycle Theory
Determines levels of family development task accomplishment by looking at progression from stage to stage as it achieves said tasks.
Stress experienced by the caregiver can get worse when________.
The impairment of the older person worsens.
When incidences of child abuse occur, the first thing a SW should do is __________.
Assess risk for immediate harm.
Protocol in reporting colleague
Speak to colleague -->Supervisor-->Executive director
-->Regulatory board (hint: think of it as an issue in the workplace. You wouldn't go directly to HR, you would follow an appropriate chain of command)
In a court hearing, the SW should __________.
Attempt to protect the client's confidentiality to the fullest extent allowed by law.
White Americans
Divorce is common; personal desires over family. long-winded and impersonal. Religion is Protestant and Bible-based
Value: Capitalism
American Indian/Alaska Native
Complex organizations that include relatives w/o blood. Indirectness in communication. Interconnectedness of all living things
Value: holistic, interconnectedness of mind, body, and spirit
Asian
Patriarchal with the wife having a lower status to her father, husband, and oldest son. Communication is often indirect. Culture and spirituality is influenced by Confucian and Buddhist philosophies
Values: shaming and obligation to others are reinforcing cultural norms
They may also respond to psychotropic drugs differently and typically require lower doses.
African American
Multigenerational family systems. Strong kinship. Animated communication. Turn to community/religous leaders for help. Church is integral part of life.
Values: communalism, strong kinship bonds
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
Wester concept of immediate family is alien to indigenous Hawaiians. Variety of languages. Polytheistic
Values: importance of culture and welfare of all living in a community. focus on ensuring health of the community as a whole.
Hispanic/Latino
Extended family system incorporates godparents and informally adopted children. Often speak Spanish and varied emotional expressiveness, expansive/expressive, friendly. Mainly Roman Catholic
Values: Wish to improve their life circumstances.