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a-type conflict (affective conflict)

Disagreement that focuses on individuals or personal issues

action plan

The specific steps, people, and resources needed to accomplish a goal.

bounded rationality

A decision-making process restricted in the real world by limited resources, incomplete and imperfect information, and managers' limited decision-making capabilities.


A decision-making method in which group members build on each others' ideas to generate as many alternative solutions as possible.

c-type conflict (cognitive conflict)

Disagreement that focuses on problem- and issue-related differences of opinion.

Delphi technique

A decision-making method in which members of a panel of experts respond to questions and to each other until reaching agreement on an issue. (time consuming)

devil's advocacy

A decision-making method in which an individual or a subgroup is assigned the role of a critic.


A barrier to good decision making caused by pressure within the group for members to agree with each other.

management by objectives (MBO)

A four-step process in which managers and employees discuss and select goals, develop tactical plans, and meet regularly to review progress toward goal accomplishment. Clearly defined, explicit goals and agreed upon -every mgmt. has agreed to this set of goals.mgmt. has agreed to this set of goals.


A statement of a company's overall goal that unifies company-wide efforts toward its vision, stretches and challenges the organization, and possesses a finish line and a time frame.


Choosing a goal and developing a strategy to achieve that goal.

rational decision making

A systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions.

relative comparisons

A process in which each decision criterion is compared directly to every other criterion.

S.M.A.R.T. goals

Goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely.

stepladder technique

A decision-making method in which group members are added to a group discussion one at a time. The existing group members listen to each new member's thoughts, ideas, and recommendations; then the group shares the ideas and suggestions that it had already considered, discusses the new and old ideas, and makes a decision.

strategic plans

Overall company plans that clarify how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors over the next two to five years.

tactical plans

Plans created and implemented by middle managers that specify how the company will use resources, budgets, and people over the next six months to two years to accomplish specific goals within its mission. Done by mid-level managers


An inspirational statement of an organization's enduring purpose.

What are the benefits of planning?

• It intensifies effort.
• It bolsters persistence.
• It imparts direction.
• It furthers development of task strategies.
• It boasts a proven track record. It has been proven to
work for both companies and individuals.

What are the pitfalls of planning?

It can create a false sense of certainty

Making a plan that works involves WHAT?

1) setting goals
2) developing a commitment to goals
3) developing effective actions plans
4) tracking progress
5) maintaining flexibility.

WHAT is one way of setting effective goals?

to use S.M.A.R.T. guidelines

Goal commitment

the determination to achieve a goal

Tracking Progress (actual verses stated goals) WHAT are the 2 kinds of goals?

Proximal goals
Distal goals

Options-based planning

maintaining planning flexibility by making small, simultaneous investments in many alternative plans

Slack resources

a cushion of extra resources that can be used with options-based planning to adapt to unanticipated changes problems or opportunities.

Learning-based planning

learning better ways of achieving goals by continually testing, changing, and improving plans and strategies.

Top managers create the _____ ____ and mission and long-term strategic plans.

organizational vision

WHAT TYPE OF MANAGERS use single-use, standing plans, and budgets to manage the production and delivery of the organization's products and services?


WHAT are the 3 types of operational plans?

single-use plans, standing plans and budgets

Single-use plans

plans that cover unique, one-time-only events.

Standing plans

plans used repeatedly to handle frequently recurring events.


quantitative planning through which managers decide how to allocate available money to best accomplish company goals.

WHAT are the the steps to rational decision making?

1) Define the problem; 2) identify decision criteria; 3) weight the criteria; 4) generate alternative courses of action; 5) evaluate each alternative; and 6) compute the optimal decision.


a gap between a desired state and an existing state

WHAT 3 things must occur for managers to make a decision?

-Knowledge, skills, abilities and resources


choosing the best alternative

What are the advantages of group decision making?

-possess different knowledge, skills, abilities, and experiences from multiple perspectives.
-have access to much more information than individuals.
-have increased knowledge and information that lead to more idea generation.
-will be more committed to making chosen solutions work.

What are the pitfalls of group decision making?

-may suffer from "groupthink."
-It takes more time.
-One or two people may dominate the discussion, restricting consideration to different alternatives.
-members don't feel personally accountable for the outcomes.

How does the stepladder-technique work?

• Two group members present ideas to each other and make a joint decision.
• A new member is added; the three members discuss new ideas and make a tentative decision.
• A new member is added, and so forth.

Electronic brainstorming

a decision-making method in which group members use computers to build on each others' ideas and generate many alternative solutions.

Electronic brainstorming manages to overcome two problems with face-to-face brainstorming. What 2 problems would this be?

Production blocking
Evaluation apprehension

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