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Terms in this set (97)
The study of the motion of air as it encounters a solid object such as an airplane wing.
Causes the object to remain in the air. The force applied perpendicular to the direction of the object's motion to exceed the force of gravity.
Creation of Lift
Airflow over an airfoil surface such as the wing of an aircraft. When air flows faster over the airfoil surface than underneath, lift is achieved.
Resists the airflow that enables motion. This is the force applied parallel to the direction of the objects motion. Must be countered by an equal or greater thrust in order to achieve or maintain motion.
The force that draws an object to the Earth. It is the combination of the mass of the object and the force of gravity. Limiting factor of flight.
Is the force that propels the aircraft into the air. Produced by accelerating the mass of air around the aircraft by one of the means of propulsion. Resisted by drag.
A surface such as an aircraft wing or rotor blade that is shaped to split airflow above and below the airfoil to create lift. As the air over the top of the wing speeds up, the pressure above decreases. At the same time, the pressure below increases and creates lift.
Angle of Attack
Is the angle at which the airfoil encounters incoming air. Measured as the angle between the chord line of the airfoil and the airflow direction.
Is the factor used to calculate the lift of the airfoil. The number takes into account the airspeed of the aircraft, the density of the air around the airfoil. the area of the airfoil surface or wing, and the angle of attack.
The imaginary line from the front to the back of the airfoil surface. Distance is the leading edge to the trailing edge.
Critical Angle of Attack
Produces the maximum value of the lift coefficient.
Rotation of an aircraft about its vertical axis so that the longitudinal axis deviates left or right from the flight line.
The rotation of an aircraft around its longitudinal axis. The clockwise or counterclockwise rotating motion of an aircraft.
Rotation of the aircraft around its lateral axis.
When a sudden decrease in lift and increase in drag causes the aircraft to fall.
Occurs as a result of a stall that is improperly corrected.
Phase in which the aircraft has begun to spin after a stall.
Fully Developed Stage
Phase in which the aircraft is descending in a near-vertical spiral.
Phase in which the aircraft is spinning around its own center of gravity.
Speed of an aircraft measured against the speed of sound.
Less than Mach 1
Near Mach 1
Over Mach 1
Mach 3- Mach 4 (3-5x the speed of sound)
Mach 5-10 (5-10x the speed of sound)
Higher than Mach 10
A system in which the engine mixes fuel with air and burns the fuel to release heated gas that moves a piston attached to a crankshaft.
A system in which the engine combines fuel and oxidizers in a combustion chamber to release hot exhaust.
Gas Turbine Engine (Jet Engine)
A system in which the engine combines fuel and air from the surrounding atmosphere in a combustion chamber to release hot exhaust.
Fixed Wing Aircraft
An aircraft with stationary wings attached to a fuselage that uses forward airspeed to generate lift.
The main supporting structure of the aircraft that carries the pilot, passengers, and cargo. Includes the cockpit that contains the controls of the aircraft. The engine may be contained or affixed to the fuselage in a nacelle.
A force applied perpendicular to an object.
A force that pushes an object and reduces its size.
A force applied parallel to an object that causes layers of an object to shift or break off.
A force that pulls and object and causes an object to stretch.
A force that applies torque that twists an object.
A rigid frame that includes bars, beams, and struts designed to withstand tension and compression.
A single-shell frame that relies on the strength of its skin or covering to withstand stress. Uses formers that determine the shape of the fuselage and bulkheads to resist pressure.
A hybrid frame that consists of both a strong outer skin, formers, and bulkheads like a monocoque frame, as well as longerons and diagonal bracing to support the structure like a truss frame.
Wing shape types
Leading and Trailing edges, straight or tapered.
Straight and horizontal, attached to the bottom of the fuselage
straight and horizontal, attached to the middle of the fuselage
straight and horizontal, attached to the top of the fuselage
Angled up or down, attached to the top or bottom of the fuselage
Bent upward toward the wing root, attached to the top or bottom of the fuselage
Bent downward near the wing root, attached to the top or bottom of the fuselage.
Wing supports itself without external bracing, reducing drag.
Provide the main structure of the wing. Support the weight of the fuselage and engines, as well as the load of the aircraft is carrying. Like the longerons of the fuselage they run span-wise from the fuselage to the wing tip.
Provide additional support. A rigid stressed design relieves some of the load and stress of the flight from the spars.
Flight control surface that attached to the vertical stabilizer that controls the yaw and counters the adverse yaw created by the ailerons that caused the aircraft to yaw in the opposite direction of the roll.
Flight control surfaces on the outer trailing (rear) edges of the wings which enable the pilot to control the aircraft about the roll axis, i.e. raising one wing and lowering the other, or banking, as during a turn.
Flight control surfaces attached to the horizontal stabilizer (tail wing) that controls the pitch orientation of the nose.
The rear fuselage of an aircraft affixed to the main wings on either side. Can contain fuel tanks, extend the tail or provide additional support. .
Compartments attached to the fuselage or built into the wings that contain the engine and engine components, the aircraft firewall, or the landing gear of the aircraft.
Detachable panel that serves as the cover of the aircraft engine to facilitate access. On a nacelle can also serve as a landing gear cover.
Used on a fixed-width aircraft to seal the spaces between components to improve appearance and reduce drag.
Arrangement with two front wheels and one smaller wheel or skid in back.
arrangement with one small wheel in front and two wheels in back that is used by modern aircraft.
Main Rotor Blade
Helicopter's airfoil and serves the same function as an airplane wing, generating lift. The pilot can manipulate this to steer the craft.
Swash plate Assembly
Communicates the input from the flight controls to the rotor blades to control the motion of the helicopter. Lower is stationary and upper rotates freely.
Bar is attached to the top of the main rotor and uses weights on either end to maintain a consistent rotation that decreases the vibrations from the forces acting on the rotor blades.
Shaft around which the rotor blade spins. The rotor mast connects the rotor blades to the transmission of the helicopter.
Transmits power from the engine to the rotors and controls the speed of the rotation of the main and tail rotors.
Means of propulsion. This is often a gas turbine engine that generates thrust powerful enough to lift the helicopter's weight off the ground.
Cyclic Pitch Lever
Controls the side to side and forward/backward motion of the helicopter.
Collective Pitch lever
Controls the up and down motion of the helicopter.
Control the direction of the helicopter by controlling the direction of the tail rotor spins. The right petal rotates the helicopter to the right and the tail to the left while the left does the opposite.
Spins vertically in the opposite direction to the main rotor to control the direction of the helicopter.
Extension of the fuselage on which the tail rotor and the vertical and horizontal stabilizers are mounted. It assists the tail rotor to counter the torque generated by the main rotor and stabilize the aircraft.
Houses the pilot and co-pilot and the flight controls.
Serve to support the helicopter as it lands. Lighter and less expensive than wheels and more suited to smaller helicopters that need to lift heavy loads or hover.
Refers to the range of minimum and maximum performance capabilities within which an aircraft can safely operate.
Measured in terms of the maximum potential speed versus its maximum potential load factor.
Term used to describe the flight envelope, though it fails to consider the aircraft's actual performance during different maneuvers.
Describes the range of performance of which and aircraft is capable during turning and flying maneuvers at different speeds and at different altitudes.
Storing, ensuring aircrafts in the airspace operate safely, transporting passengers and crew.
Large, open space from which aircrafts take off and land. This area can refer to a runway, deck of a ship or open water.
Paved or unpaved strip of land that provides enough length and width to allow airplanes to speed up before taking off or slowing down upon landing.
Runway end identifier lights
Flashing lights at the runway threshold.
Runway end lights
Four lights on both ends of the runway that look green from the sky and red from the ground.
Runway edge lights
White lights running the length of the runway on both sides.
Runway centerline lighting system
Lights that run length-wise through the center of the runway at 50ft. intervals. The lights are white until the last 3000ft. of the runway, after which they alternate white and red until the last 984ft. after which they are red.
Touchdown zone lights
White bars that run along either side of the centerline with three in each row for 3000ft.
Taxiway centerline lead-off and lead-on lights
Green and yellow alternating lights along the middle of the taxiway.
Land and hold short lights
white pulsating lights that designate the hold short position.
Approach lighting system
Strobe lights and or light bars that indicate the approach end, or the end of the runway.
Is the area outside the terminal or concourse where aircrafts are temporarily parked for refueling, loading and unloading cargo, and bordering and disembarking passengers. Also referred to as the tarmac.
A windowed command center from which Air Traffic Control (ATC) can monitor the air traffic in the local airspace.
Enclosed utility building in which aircrafts are stored when not in use to protect them from environmental damage.
Area of the building that connects the landside of the airport to the airside. This area includes check-in and ticketing counters, ground transportation connections, and facilities for passengers.
Flight Data Person
Receives pre-flight data from pilots, monitors weather, transmits the flight plan to the FAA, and passes along the flight progress strip, the data used to track the progress of a flight.
Receives the flight progress strip to control Aircraft traffic on the ground such as taxiing to or from the gates to the runway.
Observes the sky and monitors radar from the control tower to track the movements of aircrafts in the local airspace.
Monitors radar and radio signals for the departing aircrafts at multiple airports from a terminal radar control approach facility
Maintains communication between the aircraft and the ground within their designated sector and transmits instructions and information to the pilot
Directs the pilot to the runway for landing and passes the flight back to local and ground control
Leonardo da Vinci
Designed the Ornithopter upon which modern helicopters are based on in 1485
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