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94 terms

Organic Chem

STUDY
PLAY
Hydrocarbons
Molecules composed of only H and C
Properties of organic compounds depend on
Carbon skeleton and how the functional groups attach to the backbone
Radical Group
-R
Carboxyl group
-COOH
Hydroxyl group
-OH
Phosphate group
PO4
Amino Group
-NH2
Four macromolecules
Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acid
Monomers
building blocks that are joined together to make large molecules
Polymers
Monomers linked by covalent bonds
Macromolecules
Vary from species to species and individuals to individuals
Carbohydrates
Monomer: Monosaccharide
Lipids
Monomer: none
Protein
Monomer: Amino Acid
Nucleic Acid
Monomer: Nitrogen Base + Phosphate + Sugar = Nucleotide
Carbohydrates made up of
Carbon Hydrogen & Oxygen
Ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen
2:1
Ratio of Carbon to water
1:1
Functions of Carbohydrates
structural molecules and Chitin
Monosaccharide
Simplest carbohydrate, known as the simple sugar
Glucose
Blood sugar, monosaccharide
Fructose
Fruit sugar, monosaccharide
Galactose
Part of milk sugar, monosaccharide
Isomer
same Number and kind of atoms, different arrangement
Dehydration Synthesis
Removing Water to link monomers
Hydrolysis
Adding water to break polymers
Sucrose
Table sugar, disaccharide
Lactose
Milk sugar, disaccharide
Maltose
Malt sugar, disaccharide
Polysaccharides
many monosaccharides joined together
Glycogen
Animal starch (liver, muscle) Polysaccharides
Starch
Energy Storage in plants (rice, corn, potatoes) Polysaccharides
Cellulose
Plants, Polysaccharides
Lipids vary in _____, all are ____ and are _____
structure, nonpolar, insoluble
Lipids
Contain mostly C and H, with a little bit of O. Some have small amounts of P and N
Lipids will dissolve
in nonpolar organic solvents
Nonpolar Organic Solvents
Chloroform, Ethernet, Benezene
Functions of lipids
Energy storage molecules or waterproof coverings around cells
1 gram of fat
9 calories
1 gram of carbohydrate
4.5 calories
1 gram of protein
4.5 calories
Things that need lipids
hibernating animals (bears, frogs) , migrating animals (geese), seeds (peanut, sunflower)
Functions of lipids
high proportion of Hydrogen - Carbon bonds are rich in stored energy
Functions of lipids
Contain twice the energy of carbohydrates
Functions of lipids
Do not attract water, so they are stored in a concentrated form. Polar carbohydrates (have a charge) must be surrounded by water and this adds weight
Functions of lipids
Healthy Skin
Functions of lipids
Fat soluble vitamins
Functions of lipids
Protection and Insulation
Functions of lipids
Makes up cell membrane (phospholipids)
Simplest Lipids
Fatty Acids
2 compounds that make up a lipid
Glycerol and 3 fatty acids = a triglyceride (fat molecule)
Fatty acids
Long hydrocarbon chain, carboxyl at one end.
3 types of fatty acids
Saturated, mono-unsaturated, polyunsaturated
Saturated
All carbon atoms are filled with Hydrogen atoms
Saturated
solid at room temperature (ex. butter, lard, bacon)
mono-unsaturated
one double covalent bond replaces 2 hydrogen atoms
mono-unsaturated
olive oil, liquid at room temperature
polyunsaturated
2 or more double covalent bonds replacing hydrogen atoms
polyunsaturated
vegetable oil, liquid at room temperature
Triglycerides include
fats and oils
Triglyceride molecules made up of
1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids
Plant and animal fats mainly composed of
Triglycerides
Triglyceride comprise ___ of the lipids in foods
95%
Principle use of Triglyceride
energy source for metabolic processes
Excess calories from carbs, proteins or fats converted to
Triglycerides, stored as fat
Animals needing lots of fat for hibernation/insulation produce high proportion of
unsaturated fatty acids
Structural molecules that contribute to the shape of the body
Phospholipids
chief lipids components of
membranes
Phospholipids
Hydrophillic, have a phosphate group in place of a fatty acid chain
Steroids
insoluble in water
Include the sex hormones and cholesterol
Steroids
Can pass through the hydrophobic molecules that make up cell membranes
Steroids
Cholesterol
can pass through cell membrane
Important component of cell membrane, brain and nerves
cholesterol
Raw material for production of vitamin D and of steroid hormones
cholesterol
Steroid hormones
aldesterone (adrenal gland, controls Na+ and Cl-)
Amino acids contain
Amine group (NH2), Carboxyl Group, R group
R group makes each amino acid different from each other
Amino Acids
CHON
Amino Acids
Plants use this to build their own types of proteins
Nitrites
Animals must get their amino groups pre-formed, directly from
plant foods, single-celled organisms, or from protein in milk, eggs, or body tissues of other animals
Thousands of different proteins due to
Arrangement (order), number, and kind of the 20 amino acids
Essential amino acids
Must be provided preformed in the food.
Essential amino acids
Cannot be synthesized in the body out of materials available. 9 essential ones
Proteins take up _____ of our weight
20%
Most of our protein found in
1. muscles
2. hair
3. nails
4. eyes
5. skin
6. enzymes
Protein
CHONS
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Soil microbes, can convert nitrogen into form usable by plants
Functions of proteins
Growth
Functions of proteins
Structure
Growth (proteins)
75% of amino acids we take in are used to make new proteins
Growth (proteins)
Need about 300g/day
Structure (protein)
Fibrous proteins - (spider webs) long and stretched out
Structure (protein)
Globular proteins - (hemoglobin, insulin, antibodies) twisted and folded into particular patterns