AP Environmental Science - Chapter 1 & 2
Miller Living in the Environment-AP Edition Chapter 1 Envirronmental Problems, Their Causes, and Sustainability Chapter 2 - Science, Systems, Matter, and Energy
Terms in this set (88)
Everything around us and everything that effects a living organism.
An interdisciplinary study of how humans interact with the environment of living and nonliving things.
The biological studies of sciencce, thats studies how organisms interact with their environment and each other.
A set of organisms interacting with one another and with their environment of nonliving matter and energy within a defined area or volume.
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life-support systems for us and all otehr forms of life.
The ability of the earth's various natural systems and human cultural systems and economies to survive and adapt to changing environmental conditions indefinitely.
The natural rescources and natural services that keep us and other forms of life alive and support our economies.
Materials and energy in nature that are essential or useful to humans.
Functions of nature, such as purification of air and water, which support life and human economies.
The circulation of chemicals necessary for life, from the environment (mostly from soil and water) through organisms and back to the environment.
Energy stored from the sun.
Environmentally Sustainable Society
One that meets the current and future basic resource needs of its people in a just and equitable manner without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their basic needs.
The renewable rescources such as plants,animals, and soil providied by natural capital.
Gross Domestic Product(GDP)
The annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
Per Capita (GDP)
The GDP divided by the total population at midyear.
Per Capita GDP PPP
A measure of the amount of goods and services that a country's average citizen could buy in the United States.
Has the goal of using economic growth to improve living standards.
Include the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and most countries of Europe.
Most of them in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development
This involves using political and economic systems to discourage environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth that degrade natural capital, and to encourage environmentally beneficial and sustainable forms of economic development that help sustain natural capital.
Anything obtained from the environment to meet our needs and wants.
The management of natural resources with the goal of minimizing resource waste and sustaining resource supplies for current and future generations.
Solar Energy renewed continuously and is expected to last at least 6 billion years as the sun completes its life cycle.
Can be replenished fairly quickly (from hours to hundreds of years) through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is renewed.
The highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitley without reducing its available supply is called its sustainable yield.
When we exceed a renewable resource's natural replacement rate, the available supply begins to shrink, a process known as environmental degradation.
Exist in a fixed quantity, or stock, in the earth's crust.
Using a resource over and over in the same form.
Involves collecting waste materials and processing them into new materials.
The amount of biologically productive land and water needed to supply the people in a particular country or area with resources and to absorb and recycle the wastes and pollution produced by such resource use.
Per Capita Ecological Footprint
The average ecological footprint of and individual in a given country or area.
The whole of a society's knowledge, beliefs, technology, and practices, and human cultural changes have had profound effects on the earth.
Or sustainability, revolution during this century. It would involve learning how to reduce our ecological footprints and live more sustainability.
Any in the environment that is harmful to the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms.
Are single, identifiable sources.
Are dispersed and often difficult to identify.
Are harmful materials that can be broken down by natural processes.
Are harmful materials that natural processes cannot break down.
Pollution Clean up
Or output pollution control, which involves cleaning up or diluting pollutants after they have been produced.
Or input pollution control, which reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants.
Occurs when people are unable to meet their basic needs for adequate food, water, shelter, health, and education.
A set of assumptions and values reflecting how you think the world works and what you think your role in the world should be.
Which are our beliefs about what is right and wrong with how we treat the environment.
Planetary Management Worldview
Holds that we are separate from nature, that nature exists mainly to meet our needs and increasing wants, and that we can use our ingenuity and technology to manage the earth's life-support systems, mostly for our benefit, indefinitely.
Holds that we can and should manage the earth for our benefit, but that we have and ethical responsibility to be caring and responsible managers, or stewards, of the earth.
Environmental Wisdom Worldview
Holds that we are part of, and totally dependent on, nature and that nature exists for all species, not just for us.
This involves getting people with different views and values to talk and listen to one another, find common ground based on understanding and trust, and work together to solve environmental problems.
an interdisciplinary science that uses concepts and information from natural sciences and social sciences to help us understand how the earth works, how we are affecting the earth's life-support systems (environment), and how to deal with the environmental problems we face
energy from the sun
the planet's air, water, soil, wildlife, forests, range-lands, fisheries, minerals, and natural purification, recycling, and pest control processes
direct sunlight and indirect forms of solar energy such as wind power, hydropower, and biomass
Environmentally sustainable society
satisfies the basic needs of its people for food, clean water, clean air, and shelter into the indefinite future without depleting or degrading the earth's natural resources
the number of years it takes for a population to growing at a specific rate to double its size
Rule of 70
70/percentage growth rate = doubling time in years
an increase in a country's capacity to provide people with goods and services
(gross national product/gross national income) the market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within and outside a country during a year plus net income earned abroad by a country's citizens
(gross national income in purchasing power parity) the market value of a country's GNI in terms of the goods and services it would buy in the United States
(gross domestic product) the market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within a country in a year
(gross world product) the market value in current dollars of all the goods and services produced in the world during a year
Per capita GNI
the GNI divided by the total population at mid-year
an income of roughly $1 per year, according to the World Bank
the process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world
anything obtained from the environment to meet human needs and wants
is renewed continuously on a human time scale
can be replenished fairly rapidly through natural processes as long as it is not used up faster than it is replaced
the highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
when a renewable resource's natural replacement rate is exceeded and its available value begins to shrink
resources that exist in a fixed quantity or stock in the earth's crust
involves collecting and reprocessing a resource into new products
involves using a resource over and over in the same form
any addiction to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms
where pollutants come from single, identifiable sources
where pollutants come from dispersed (and often difficult to identify) sources
Pollution prevention/input pollution control
reduces or eliminates the production of pollutants
Pollution cleanup/output pollution control
involves cleaning up pollutants after they have been produced
how people think the world works, what they think their role in the world should be, and what they believe is right or wrong environmental behavior
Planetary management worldview
view that human beings, as the planet's most important and dominant species, can and should manage the planet mostly for their own benefit
Environmental wisdom worldview
view that nature does not exist just for us and we only think we are in charge and that there is not always more
Environmentally sustainable economic development
uses economic rewards to encourage environmentally beneficial and sustainable forms of economic development and economic penalties to discourage environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth
survived by collecting edible wild plant parts, hunting, fishing, and scavenging meat from animals killed by other predators
a gradual move from usually nomadic hunting-and-gathering groups to settled agricultural communities in which people domesticated wild animals and cultivated wild plants
preparing the land for farming by clearing patches of tropical forests by cutting down trees and other vegetation and then burning the underbrush to fertilize the soil
rotation of plots to allow nutrient-depleted plots to become fertile again
a shift from dependence on renewable wood and flowing water to dependence on machines running on nonrenewable fossil fuels
Information & globalization revolution
cultural shift in which new technologies mean we have increasingly rapid access to much more information on a global scale
Frontier environmental worldview
view that most of the continent as a wilderness to be conquered by clearing and planting and with vast resources
a growing number of citizens organized to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas from environmental degradation