51 terms

Chapter 10: Christian Europe Emerges (By: Eileen Flood)

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Terms in this set (...)

Pope
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church.
Medieval
Another name for the Middle Ages.
Manors
Portions of land given to barons, or lords, by their king. This land in turn was given to knights for military services, who had it farmed by serfs.
Serfs
Worked land for protection among other needs. They often were tied to the land, and as a result, so would their children as well.
Feudalism
Political and military system characterized by the exchange of land for military services.
Fief
A piece of land held under the feudal system.
Horse collar
Developed in Europe in Middle Ages; increased efficiency of horses for plowing, transport, and other work.
Lord
Man in charge of a fief.
Vassals
Lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord -- in a military capacity.
Nepotism
Favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs).
Simony
Buying and selling of church offices.
Papacy
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head.
Mass
(Roman Catholic Church) the celebration of the Eucharist.
The Trinity
The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three persons in one God.
Heresy
An opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred.
Schism
1054 A.D. Matters came to head when the Pope/Patriarch excommunicated; Christianity officially split into Roman Catholic (West) and Orthodox (East).
Canon Law
Church law; all medieval Christians were subject to it in matters such as marriage and religious practices.
Investiture Controversy
A debate between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor as to who had the right to "invest" bishops with authority.
Monasticism
A style of Christian life which stresses communal living and communal worship along with private prayer, silence, poverty, chastity, and obedience.
Rule of Benedict
Rule book or guide for monastic life that was used by monastic communities throughout Western Europe (still used today).
Monasteries
Religious community where Christians called monks gave up their possessions and devoted their lives to serving God.
Caesaropapism
Concept relating to the mixing of political and religious authority, as with the Roman emperors, that was central to the church versus state controversy in medieval Europe.
Cyrillic
An alphabet for the writing of Slavic languages, devised in the ninth century A.D. by Cyril and Methodius.
Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne's empire; covered much of western and central Europe; largest empire until Napoleon in 19th century.
Holy Roman Empire
An empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy.
Byzantine Empire
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Kievan Russia
State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population.
Franks
A Germanic people who settled in the Roman province of Gaul.
Visogoths
Came from the North and attacked Rome, (1st to try) starting the beginning of their downfall.
Saxons and Anglos
German, they invaded and settled and created several Barbarian Kingdoms. England.
Charles Martel
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe.
Charlemagne
"Charles the Great" leader of the Franks (France); unified most of the Christian lands of Europe with the help of Pope Leo III who crowned him "Holy Roman Emperor" 800 c.e.
The Vikings
Germanic people from Scandinavia who often raided Western Europe during the A.D. 800s and 900s.
William the Conqueror
French nobleman of Normandy who won control of England at the Battle of Hastings; introduced feudalism to England.
Henry the II of England
Also known as Henry Plantagenet, ruled as King of England (1154-89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Ordered death of Thomas `a Becket.
Thomas `a Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury, highest ranking English cleric, claimed only Roman Catholic Church courts could try clerics, King Henry II had him killed by 4 knights.
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rules in Byzantine Empire.
Vladimir I
Ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015; converted kingdom to Christianity.
Battle of Tours
Battle in 732 in which the Christian Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Muslim armies and stopped the Muslim advance into Europe.
The Crusades
(1095- 1270) Eight crusades done by Western Christians to attempt to win back lands conquered by Muslims, specifically Jerusalem.
Bayeaux Tapestry
A tapestry where the story of the Battle of Hasting and the Norman conquest is recorded.
Hagia Sophia
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.
Outline the movements of various Germanic tribes from the fall of Rome to 732.
Between 400 and 600, small Germanic kingdoms replaced Roman provinces. The borders of those kingdoms changed constantly with war. The Church was an institution that survived the fall of the Roman Empire. Clovis, king of the Franks conquered Gaul and converted to Christianity, gaining the support of the Christian Church of Rome. In 732, the Christians were able to hold off the Muslims from conquering them in 732.
Develop a graphic that depicts the social stratifications and relationships in feudalism.
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How did Christianity shape European society?
It preserved much of the knowledge developed before the Middle Ages thought monasteries. It kept education of learning alive by rewriting books and passing them down. Christianity also became an important part of the governments of Europe, since the Pope strongly influenced the king and his advisors. As a result, Christianity still affects the function of European society today.
Byzantine Empire Characteristics: Government
The Byzantine Empire was ruled by an Emperor and instead of direct rule, used civil service to effectively run the empire.
Byzantine Empire Characteristics: Church
The Byzantine Empire was part of the Eastern Orthodox Church of Christianity. Emperor Justinian built the Hagia Sophia as a grand place to worship.
Byzantine Empire Characteristics: Economy
Byzantine Empire became the wealthiest empire in Europe. This is because Constantinople was the bridge between Europe and the rest of the world, and became the center of east-west trade. Constantinople was the major trading stop in Europe on the Silk Road, not only because of its geographical location but also because of its diverse population.
Byzantine Empire Characteristics: Family
Family was the center of life in the Byzantine Empire. Women typically did household work and care for the children. The men of the households were in charge.
List the causes of the Crusades.
After the Muslim capture of Jerusalem in 1076, any Christian pilgrim who wanted to visit the Holy Lands faced great danger - the Muslims didn't like Christians. To the East, Alexius I of Constantinople urged the Pope to send help to fight the Muslims who were slowly incorporating into his territory. The Pope had had enough so he summoned, among all Christendom, the First Crusade.
List the effects of the Crusades.
The crusades affected Europe in many ways which included increasing the wealth of the church and the power of Papacy. The crusades also created a constant demand for supplies, encouraged ship-building and an extended market in Europe. They also brought down the power of feudal aristocracy and gave prominence to kings and people.