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ID 1051 Unit 2
Terms in this set (92)
A theory; A term first used by Goethe
Additive and Subtractive Color
Only two ways that color can be created
Munsell, Natural Color System, RGB & CYMK, and Pantone
What are the 4(/5) color systems?
Relationships between colors on the color wheel
the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior
We see color because of light
White is the combination of all colored light
what is a source of pure white light
refers to pigment color, not light; color we see is the one reflected
combination of all pigment colors produces
if a surface is black, which color(s) are being reflected?
Results of combining colors of _____ is quite different than combining colors of _____.
Basic name of a specific color and position on the spectrum; represented on 2-D scale
The lightness/darkness of a color
The intensity/ saturation of the hue
All of the color that can be described by the color system; the 3-D object
Sir Isaac Newton
In studying color, he developed the first color wheel and identified the color spectrum in the ROY G BIV order
Wolfgang Van Goethe
Produced THEORIES OF COLOR, theorizing that color is a perception and is systematic
Wrote THE LAW OF SIMULTANEOUS COLOR CONTRAST; as director of dyes at Gobelin Tapestry Works near Paris, he discovered and defined color relationships that we understand and use today
Albert Henry Munsell
With Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald, defined the Munsell Color System which proposed a theoretical "color space" that has become the cornerstone of the color theory education
The German modernist school of design from which Wassily Kandinsky, Johannes Itten, Faber Birren, and Josef Albers, all noted colorists, did studies of color as basic elements of composition. These studies are still used as a basic foundation in color design courses
An abstract mathematical modeling describing the way colors can be represented as series of numbers, typically as three or four variable or color components; typically associated with NCS
mathematically mapping variables against a certain reference
What can result in an abstract color space?
Every color has a definable "_____" or reference within the color space.
Munsell (color system)
Best system of color; typically represented as a spherical, three-dimensional object w/latitudes of value, longitude of hue, and depth of chroma/saturation; color wheel
Primary, secondary, and tertiary colors
What is the Munsell Color Wheel made up of?
Natural Color Sensations (NCS)
Specifically defined versions of Red, Yellow, Green, Blue, Black, and White. These are also called precepts. These are colors that are not easily described as a fn of another color
What is the color wheel for NCS?
What is the graph form of NCS called?
How many specific colors does NCS have designation for?
The amount of black as a percentage of the total value
The intensity of the hue, or its chromaticity
The degree of difference a color has from adjacent NCSens.
A color mixing system and rotation that is based on the color mixing of the primary colors of light, or additive color; red, green, and blue
Is RGB additive or subtractive?
desktop apps and web-based systems
What is RGB used in?
A color mixing system and notation that is based on the color mixing of the primary colors of pigment, or subtractive color; cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
subtractive; its primary colors are subtracted from white light to produce the resulting color
is CMYK additive or subtractive? Why?
To give printing purer form
Why was black added to CMYK?
What shape is RGB and what are its dimensions?
The Pantone system is a _____ _____, in that Pantone is a corporation that owns their method for producing specific colors
Unlike the other color systems we have reviewed which may have 3-4 primary colors, Pantone colors are created from 13 specific _____ _____ (15 with B&W)
How many colors does Pantone have? what system is it typically used for?
There is no defined mathematical model
Why doesn't Pantone have an abstract model?
Relationships of color around the color wheel
single split complementary
double split complementary
What are the 6 color harmonies?
human perception rather than scientific/mathematical explanations
based on Munsell vocab
What are the color harmonies based on?
Scheme that uses variations of lightness/darkness and saturation of a single color; produce soothing effect
Colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel; creates vibrancy within the colors
color scheme that uses colors next to each other on the color wheel; often found in nature
color scheme that uses colors that are evenly spaced around the color wheel; vibrant
color scheme that is a variation of the complementary color scheme; uses two colors adjacent to its complement; strong contrast with less tension
Tetradic (Double Complementary)
color scheme that uses four colors arranged into two complementary pairs
-longest wave length
-sensation of heat
-quickens heart rate
-strong emotional impact, passion
What are color psychologies of red?
- stimulates appetite and activity
- cheerful, expansive, extroverted, comfort, security
- earth color
- Sanskrit word for fire
- historically assigned to clerks for inferior positions
- brides in france,, fruitfulness
What are the color psychologies of orange?
- bond between sun and earth
- highest reflectivity of all colors, safety
- cheerful, antidepressant, happy, warmth, enlightenment, intellect
- lacks popularity, not flattering to most complexions
- popular in learning environments
- spring, flowers
- death of green, aging of white
- stinging and poisonous creatures
What are the color psychologies for yellow?
- disease, arsenic
- highly visible, but used in camo
- stable and secure, jealously, youth and inexperience
- money, non-human characteristics, health of earth
- plane venus,, love and fertility
What are the color psychologies for green?
- lowers blood pressure, calming
- cool, soothing
- can elicit negative responses
- sea and sky, heaven
- peasant clothing
- rare earth pigment
what are the color psychologies for blue?
- shortest wavelength
- most difficult for eye to discriminate
- darkest value when compared to a gray scale
- internalization, sublimation, depth of feeling, sensual
- lighter = immaturity and spirituality, deeper = depression
- royalty, religious, mourning
what are the color psychologies for purple?
Two identical colors from a single spatial position in a color system will appear differently depending on their context
Warm colors advance, cool colors recede
How do warm/cool colors move?
Simultaneous Contrast / Bezold Effect
Where a color appears different based on the color to which it is adjacent
Different colors are spaced so closely that the eye perceives them as a different color
The change in color due to changes in the light in which it is viewed, either ambient or general
1. set desired mood
2. direct attention
3. control shading/shadow
4. emphasize/modify spatial perception
What 4 effects can good lighting achieve?
A unit of measure for light that refers to the level of light delivered to one square foot surface one foot away from a single candle
The amount of light produced by the source
The quality of the surface that light strikes, measured as a percentage
The level of light bent/thrown back from the surface is measured in _____.
The angle of _____ is equal to the angle of _____ when light is reflected.
Type of lighting that provides specific quantities required to perform visual functions (reading, working, cooking, surgery, etc.); dependent upon level of detail and age/ability of user; usually localized
Type of lighting that provides overall visibility to a space; does not require high levels of light; can benefit from the use of rheostats (dimmers)
Type of lighting used to create emphasis/focus and is particularly effective when displaying art/merchandise; can contribute variety and contrast to design solutions; benefits from luminaries (low-voltage lamps)
The technical name of what we commonly call a light bulb
Most common type of lamp seen in residential use; known as "A" (arbitrary)-type lamps
- near light source
- good at describing 3-D
- emphasizes texture
- creates highlights/sparkle
- peaks at red/yellow
- warm light, flattering to complexions
- greatest amount of energy for amount of light produced (4%)
- most energy (94%) released as heat, compensated by cool AC
- short lamp life
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of incandescent lights?
General use lamps, presently the most common light source in commercial use
- mainly shadowless, diffused flat
- alone make space feel monotonous
- cool, bluish light
- available in daylight and full-spectrum ($$$)
- greater light output for energy used
- reduces amount of AC required
- longer lamp life
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of fluorescent lights?
High Intensity Discharge (HID)
Lighting used mainly for outdoor application
Mercury Vapor, High Pressure Sodium, and Metal Halide
What are the three types of HID lights available?
- point near point, casts shadows and creates highlights
- MV -> blue/green, poor rendition
- HPS -> yellow/orange, poor rendition
- MH -> cool, white, available in smaller sizes and has best color rendition, best choice for some interior applications
- high initial costs for lamps/fixtures
- high light output for energy used (better than fluorescent)
- high wattage and large beam spread make it possible to use fewer fixtures
- long lamp life, great choice for ceilings hard to reach
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of HID?
Solid State Lighting (SSL) - Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
Two lights that use semi-conservative materials stimulated by electricity to produce light, used in nearly all pedestrian applications
- flexibility in color, intensity and special effects
- nearly fully controllable
- no damaging heat/UV emissions
- full spectrum white
- RGB capable with controls, infinite color w/o filters
- higher initial costs (decreasing w/ higher demands)
- highest production of light for power consumed
- HVAC costs are reduced
- extremely long lamp life
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of SSL/LED?
Strands of acrylic/glass along with an easily accessed, easily maintained remote light source called an illuminator make up a system that transmits light safely to places that need to remain cool, might be wet, or are difficult to reach
- dependent on the source, usually tungsten-halogen or MH
- cold light with little/no infrared/UV
- depends on color of source light
- allows use of colored filters/colored OF
- increased costs of implementation -> 30-50% more than conventional lighting solutions, offers solutions where other sources may be impractical
- less heat, less AC
- many points of light with single source
- safe for wet areas
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of fiber optics?
Ubiquitous in advertising and signage, this type of lighting gets its color from various gases and vapors contained in the bent glass tubes used in its construction
- low brightness
- full range
- inefficient to operate, large quantities of power
- long life
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of neon?
A type of gas tube lighting similar to neon, this lighting is used more often in interior applications and is usually favored for cove and indirect lighting. It mirrors neon's properties, but operates on much higher electrical currents, utilizes more efficient color coating, has tubes that are twice the diameter, and provide up to five times the amount of light. Not as fragile as neon, making them easier to install.
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, used thousands of ways with applications in every section of society
- high coherent: narrow beam that can be focused to very tiny spots
- very high irradiance
- red, green
- medicine, industry, military, law enforcement, research, cosmetics
- no practical applications to lighting (yet)
What is 1) quality of light 2) color and 3) economics of laser light?
Mercury and Sodium Vapor Light
Used primarily for road lighting and for industrial plants, these sources of light are not acceptable for general illumination although they produced high levels of lumens for the power they consume
- physical security
- biological clock/ circadian rhythm
- seasonal affective disorder (sad)
- contact w/nature
- define personal territory
- relaxation of mind/body
- phototherapy / chromotherapy
What are some of the biological needs of lighting?
- wall washing
- grazing lighting
- structural lighting
- translucent stone
- skylight panels
- ornamental elements
What are some compositional lighting techniques?
Is decorative lighting considered to be a compositional lighting technique?
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