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Chapter 7 Practice Test
Terms in this set (28)
How many valence electrons are in an atom of phosphorus?
How many valence electrons are in a silicon atom?
How does calcium obey the octet rule when reacting to form compounds
It gives up electrons.
How many electrons does barium have to give up to achieve a noble-gas electron configuration?
Which of the following elements forms an ion with a 1- charge?
What is the formula of the ion formed when tin achieves a stable electron configuration?
How many electrons does nitrogen gain in order to achieve a noble-gas electron configuration?
What is the formula of the ion formed when phosphorus achieves a noble-gas electron configuration?
What is the electron configuration of the oxide ion (O^2-)?
1s^2 2s^2 2p^6
What is the charge on the cation in the ionic compound sodium sulfide?
Which of the following occurs in an ionic bond?
Oppositely charged ions attract
How many valence electrons are transferred from the nitrogen atom to potassium in the formation of the compound potassium nitride?
How many valence electrons are transferred from the calcium atom to iodine in the formation of the compound calcium iodide?
What is the formula unit of sodium nitride?
What is the formula unit of aluminum oxide?
Alloys with a wide range of use are referred to as
What is the formula for sodium sulfate?
Alloys are commonly used in manufacturing. Which of the following is a reason to use an alloy instead of a pure metal?
Bronze is tougher than pure copper.
Alloys are important because
their properties are often superior to those of their component elements
Ionic compounds are normally in which physical state at room temperature?
Which of the following is true about the melting temperature of potassium chloride?
The melting temperature is relatively high
What does the term coordination number in ionic crystals refer to?
the number of oppositely charged ions surrounding a particular ion
Most ionic compounds
are crystalline solids at room temperature
Which of the following particles are free to drift in metals?
Explain the octet rule and give an example of how it is used
The electron configurations of the noble gases are extremely stable. The octet rule states that, in
chemical reactions, elements gain or lose electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration. This stable
configuration is called an octet because it consists of 8 valence electrons (s2 p 6 ), 2 from the outermost s
orbital and 6 from the outermost p orbital. Oxygen has the electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p 4 . When
oxygen reacts to form ionic compounds, it completes its octet by gaining two electrons from the
element it reacts with. These two electrons add to the p orbital of oxygen, giving it the electron
configuration (1s2 2s2 2p 6 ) of neon.
Explain how atoms (ions) are held together in an ionic bond. Give an example of an ionic compound.
In an ionic bond, oppositely charged ions are held together by the electronic force of attraction that
exists between oppositely charged particles. In the ionic compound, anions and cations are present in a
ratio that causes the total charge on the compound to be zero. Sodium phosphide, Na3 P, has three
sodium ions for each phosphide ion. This ratio insures a zero total charge given the charges on the two
individual ions (Na = 1+, P = 3-).
Explain how a pure metal is held together. Include a definition of a metallic bond in your explanation.
A piece of pure metal, such as copper or iron, consists not of metal atoms, but of closely packed cations.
The cations are surrounded by mobile valence electrons that are free to drift from one part of the metal
to another. Metallic bonds result from the attraction between the free-floating valence electrons and the
positively charged metal ions.
Explain how scientists have used metallic bonding to account for many of the physical properties of
metals, such as electrical conductivity and malleability.
Metallic bonds are the result of the attraction of free-floating valence electrons to positively charged
metal ions. An electric current is a flow of electrons. As electrons enter one end of a piece of metal,
some of the free-floating electrons leave the other end. Thus metals are good conductors of electricity.
The cations in a piece of metal are insulated from each other by the free electrons. Thus when the metal
is struck, the cations slide past each other easily. This makes the metal malleable and ductile.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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Chapter 7 - Ionic and Metallic Bonding
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