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Simple random sampling

everyone has an equal chance of being chosen


separating the group by a characteristic that you think will influence the answer

Stratified random sampling

random sampling within each group


after deciding subgroups, randomly selecting a group and surveying the entire group


creating a system in order to randomly pick people

Convenience sample

includes individuals who are convenient, not a good representative

Voluntary response sample

group of individuals invited to respond

Response bias

if questions in a survey are weighted one way

Non-response bias

results are not well represented because people choose not to respond


when a group of the population is missing from your sample


protects from the influences of all features of the population by making sure that on average the sample looks like the rest of the population


the thing you want to learn about


the thing you find about the parameter

Sampling Frame

everyone available to be framed


who ended up being chosen

Observational Studies

looking at data, drawing conclusions


Identify subjects and follow them for some pre-determined time to gather data


analyze data that has already been collected


To determine cause/effect relationships
Random assignement of subject/units to treatments is required
Random selection of subjects is not required (can volunteer)
To draw conclusions about the relationships against variables

Factor in designing experiments

what's being manipulated/controlled


Multiply levels x factors


break subjects into groups by characteristic that could possibly be influenced in the experiment


when subject doesn't know what theyre getting

Double bind

when the the subject nor the person administering the experiment know what they're getting/giving

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