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Chapter 24-The Respiratory System

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1. nose
2. nasal cavity
3. sinuses
4. the pharynx
5. the larynx (voice box)
6. the trachea (wind pipe)
7. smaller conducting passageways
What are the parts of the respiratory system?
1. Exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood
2. Homeostatic regulation of body pH
3. Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritating substances
4. Vocalization
What are the functions of the respiratory system?
1. Esophagus
2. Trachea
3. Bronchus
4. Bronchioles
What are the parts of the lower respiratory system?
Bronchi
Identify E
Larynx
Identify M
Internal nares
Identify B
Trachea
Identify N
Frontal sinus
Identify I
Bronchioles
Identify C
1. The Nose & Nasal Cavity
2. The Pharynx
3. The Nasopharynx
4. The Oropharnyx
5. The Laryngopharynx
What are the parts of the upper respiratory system?
Nasopharynx
Identify C
Pharyngeal tonsil
Identify D
Entrance to auditory tube
Identify E
Soft Palate
Identify F
Palatine tonsil
Identify G
Oropharnyx
Identify H
Epiglottis
Identify I
Laryngopharynx
Identify K
Nasal conchae
Identify AE
External nares
Identify T
Hard palate
Identify U
Oral cavity
Identify V
Tongue
Identify W
Mandible
Identify X
Lingual tonsil
Identify Y
Hyoid bone
Identify Z
Thyroid cartilage
Identify AA
Cricoid cartilage
Identify AB
Trachea
Identify AC
Thyroid gland
Identify AD
Respiratory Epithelium
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epitheliam
What is the main epithelium of the respiratory system?
inferior portions of the pharynx, the smaller conducting passages and the alveoli
The respiratory epithelium lines the entire respiratory tract except for the ___________.
stratified squamous epithelium to protect it from abrasion and chemical attack.
What epithelium lines the inferior portion of the pharynx?
Produces a sticky mucus that bathes the exposed surfaces.

In the nasal cavity, cilia sweeps any microorganisms or debris trapped in the mucus toward the pharynx where it will be swallowed and exposed to the acids and enzymes of the stomach.
What is the function of the mucous cells and mucous glands?
Psuedostratified columnar epithelial cell
Identify A
Mucous cell
Identify B
Stem cell
Identify C
Mucous layer
Identify D
Lamina propria
Identify E
Lamina propria
Identify F
Nucleus of columnar epithelial cell
Identify G
Cilia
Identify H
Stem cell
Identify I
Mucous cell
Identify J
Basal lamina
Identify K
Cilia
Identify L
Lamina propria
Identify M
Nucleus of columnar epithelial cell
Identify N
Mucous cell
Identify O
Basal lamina
Identify P
Stem cell
Identify Q
Function of the nasopharynx
Communicates with the nasal cavity and provides a passageway for air during breathing
Function of the pharyngeal tonsil
Also called Adenoids which are collections of lymphatic tissue, which help to filter out bacteria and other foreign matter that pass through the air.
Function of the entrance to auditory tube
Ensures that the ears pressure remain at near standard ambient air pressure. It also drains any accumulated secretions, infection, or debris from the middle ear space.
Function of Soft palate
Helps when chewing and swallowing. It prevents food from entering the nasal cavity and has muscle and connective tissue that gives it mobility and support.
Function of Palatine tonsil
One of the body's many defense mechanisms, protecting both the respiratory and digestive tracts from infection.
Function of Oropharynx
air and food passageway
Function of Epiglottis
A shoe horn shaped flap made of elastic cartilage tissue that prevents food and foreign matter from entering the trachea upon swallowing.
Function of Laryngopharynx
Inferior part of the pharynx that extends from the epiglottis into the esophagus; helps guide food, drink & air where to go.
Function of Nasal conchae
warming and twirling of air
Function of External nares
These are the external openings on each side that lead into the nasal cavities. These openings are normally used to allow air into and out of the nasal cavities.
Function of Hard palate
Bony structure that separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity and helps with eating and speech.
Function of Oral cavity
Formed by lips, hard and soft palate and floor of the mouth contains stratified squamous epithelium that protects the mouth from abrasion during the ingestion of food.
Function of Tongue
physical breakdown of food, taste, moves food, swallowing, speech
Function of the mandible
chewing and crushing food and secondarily in speech by opening and closing mouth
Function of lingual tonsil
assist the immune system in the production of antibodies in response to invading bacteria or viruses
Function of hyoid bone
stitches tongue muscles
Function of thyroid cartilage
forms the bulk of the anterior wall of the larynx, and serves to protect the vocal folds ("vocal cords")
Function of cricoid cartilage
connect various ligaments, cartilages and muscles which are involved in closing and opening of the airways as well as in the production of speech.
Function of the trachea
transports air to and from lungs
Functions of the thyroid gland
regulate the body's metabolism, thyroid secretions also influence growth and the functioning of the nervous system
Larynx
"Voicebox", found just below the point where the pharynx splits into the trachea and esophagus and contains the vocal cords
1. Thyroid cartilage
2. Cricoid cartilage
3. Epiglottis (elastic cartilage)
What are the three large unpaired cartilages that form the body of the larynx?
1. arytenoid cartilage (hyaline)
2. corniculate cartilage (hyaline)
3. cuneiform cartilage (elastic)
What are the three paired laryngeal cartilages?
Plays a role in the opening and closing of the glottis and the production of sound.
What is the function of corniculate cartilage?
Larynx
Be able to identify the following structures

1. Epiglottis
2. Hyoid Bone
3. Larynx
4. Trachea
5. Cricoid Cartilage
6. Thyroid Cartilage
Epiglottis
Identify D
Hyoid bone
Identify E
Thyroid cartilage
Identify H
Cricoid cartilage
Identify J
Larynx
Identify B
Trachea
Identify C
Larynx-sagittal section
Be able to identify the following structures:

1. Epiglottis
2. Vestibular ligament
3. Vocal ligament
4. Arytenoid Cartilage
5. Cricoid Cartilage
6. Thyroid Cartilage
7. Corniculate cartilage
8. Tracheal cartilage
Epiglottis
Identify A
Vestibular ligament
Identify B
Vocal ligament
Identify C
Thyroid cartilage--Adam's apple = laryngeal prominence hyaline cartilage
Identify I
Corniculate cartilage
Identify J
Arytenoid cartilage
Identify K
Cricoid cartilage--Ring of hyaline cartilage below thyroid cartilage
Identify L
Tracheal cartilage
Identify M
Larynx-Laryngoscopic View
Be able to identify the following structures:

1. Epiglottis
2. Vestibular fold
3. Vocal fold
Vestibular fold
Identify A
Vocal fold--Only the vocal folds participate in sound formation.
Identify B
Epiglottis
Identify C
When air from the lungs is passed over the vocal cords inside the larynx, they vibrate. This makes a sound. The vocal cords are tightened or relaxed to change their length. This changes the speed of vibration which alters the pitch. If only the larynx is involved, the sound comes out as a dull 'aaah' in varying pitch. No recognisable words can be formed without the use of the lips, teeth, tongue and palate. This is why people with serious facial injuries or with many teeth missing often have trouble speaking or being understood.
How is sound produced in the larynx?
1. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
2. Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Which two groups of muscles are located in the larynx?
1. regulates tension in the vocal folds
2. opens and closes the glottis
What are the two major functions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles?
positions and stabilizes the larynx
What is the function of the extrinsic laryngeal muscles?
They extend between the thyroid cartilage and the arytenoids. Folds of laryngeal epithelium that project into the glottis cover the vestibular and vocal ligaments.
Where is the vestibular ligaments and vocal ligaments located?
Vestibular folds
What is the superior pair of folds called where the vestibular ligaments lie?
Helps prevent foreign objects from entering the glottis and provide protection for the more delicate vocal folds.
What do the the vestibular folds do?
Vestibular folds
What are the false vocal cords called?
Vocal folds
Mucosal folds that function in voice production (speech); also called the true vocal cords.
annular ligaments
connect the tracheal cartilages to their neighboring cartilages. In between each tracheal cartilage
tracheal cartilage
15-20 c-shaped cartilages that stiffen the trachael walls and protect the airways, they prevent the trachea's collapse or overexpansion as pressures change in the respiratory system
Be able to identify annular ligaments and tracheal cartilages as well as primary and secondary bronchi.
annular ligaments
Identify A
tracheal cartilages
Identify B
primary bronchi
Identify C
secondary bronchi
Identify D
the right one is larger and steeper
What is the anatomical difference between the primary and secondary bronchi?
Right 3 lobes
Left 2 lobes
Be able to differentiate right and left lung based on lobes.
Superior, middle & inferior
What are the 3 lobes of the right lung?
Superior and inferior
What are the 2 lobes of the left lung?
Lung Lateral surface
Be able to identify the following:

1. Apex
2. Base
3. Cardiac Notch
4. Superior lobe (right & left lung)
5. Middle lobe
6. Inferior lobe (right & left lung)
Apex
Identify A
Cardiac Notch
Identify B
Base
Identify C
Superior lobe
Identify D
Inferior lobe
Identify E
Middle lobe
Identify F
Superior lobe
Identify G
Inferior lobe
Identify H
Lungs-Medial Surface
Be able to identify the following:

1. Superior lobe (right & left lung)
2. Middle lobe
3. Inferior lobe (right & left lung)
4. Pulmonary Arteries
5. Pulmonary Veins
6. Hilum
Pulmonary Arteries
Identify A
Hilum
Identify B
Pulmonary Vein
Identify C
Superior lobe
Identify D
Inferior lobe
Identify E
Middle lobe
Identify F
Superior lobe
Identify G
Inferior lobe
Identify H
Superior lobe
Identify A
Middle lobe
Identify B
Inferior lobe
Identify C
Superior lobe
Identify D
Inferior lobe
Identify E
The primary bronchi and their branches.
What forms the bronchial tree?
secondary bronchi
When the primary bronchi divides it forms__________.
tertiary bronchi
When the secondary bronchi divides it forms__________.
primary bronchi
Identify A
tertiary bronchi
Identify B
secondary bronchi
Identify C
Smaller Bronchi
Identify D
Bronchioles
Identify E
Terminal Bronchiole
Identify F
Respiratory bronchioles
Identify G
Alveoli in a pulmonary lobule
Identify H
Primary bronchus
Identify 1
Secondary (inferior lobar) bronchus
Identify 4
Secondary (superior lobar) bronchus
Identify 3
Bronchioles
Identify 7
Terminal Bronchiole
Identify 8
Tertiary Bronchi
Identify 6
Bronchioles
Passageways by which the air passes through the nose or mouth to the air sacs of the lungs in which branches no longer contain cartilage or glands in their submucosa. They are branches of the bronchi. They terminate by entering the circular sacs called alveoli.
bronchoconstriction
Constriction of bronchial airways, caused by the parasympathetic nervous system, which causes smooth muscle to contract, and increases resistance of airflow. Tension in the smooth muscles often throws the bronchiolar mucosa into a series of folds and excessive stimulation, as in asthma, can almost completely prevent airflow alont the terminal bronchioles.
bronchodilation
Caused by the sympathetic nervous system with the release of epinephrine by the suprarenal medulla, allows smooth muscles to relax, reduced resistance of airflow
Surface for gas exchange
Be familiar with this figure, especially with:

1. alveoli ducts
2. alveoli sac
3. individual aveoli
4. bronchioles
Respiratory epithelium
Identify A
Bronchiole
Identify B
Bronchial nerve, vein & artery
Identify C
Terminal bronchiole
Identify D
Respiratory bronchiole
Identify E
Elastic fibers
Identify F
Capillary beds
Identify G
Branch of pulmonary vein
Identify H
Branch of pulmonary artery
Identify I
Smooth, muscles around terminal bronchiole
Identify J
Arteriole
Identify K
Alveolar duct
Identify L
Lymphatic vessel
Identify M
Alveoli
Identify N
Alveolar sac
Identify O
Interlobular septum
Identify P
Visceral pleura
Identify Q
Pleural cavity
Identify R
Parietal pleura
Identify S
Pulmonary lobule
Each _______ is supplied by a branch of a terminal bronchiole, an arteriole, the pulmonary capillaries, and a venule. (a large backpack)
alveoli duct
Respiratory bronchioles are connected to individual alveoli and to multple alveoli along these regions (entrance to the backpack)
alveolar sac
Where alveolar ducts end; common chambers connected to multiple individual alveoli; gives lungs a spongy appearance (large compartments of the backpack),
aveoli
sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and the blood (smallest backpack compartments within the large ones)
simple squamous epithelium
The alveolar epithelium consists primarily of what type of epithelium?
pneumocyte type 1 cells
Squamous epithelial cells that are thin and delicate located in the alveolar.
pneumocyte type II cells
Large cells that are scattered among the squamous cells in the alveolar and produce a secretion called SURFACTANT.
Surfactant
An amphipathic molecule secreted by cells in the alveoli (pneumocyte type 2 cells) that reduces surface tension on the inside of the alveolar walls. This prevents the alveoli from collapsing upon exhale and sticking together, thus reducing the effort required for inspiration.
Alveolar macrophage
Large phagocytes that remove foreign material in the lungs; e.g. debris and bacteria
pneumocyte type II cells
Identify A
elastic fibers
Identify B
capillary
Identify C
pneumocyte type I cells
Identify D
alveolar macrophage
Identify E
Endothelial cell of capillary
Identify G
alveolar macrophage
Identify H
Surfactant
Identify I
Alveolar epithelium
Identify J
Fused basal laminae
Identify K
Endothelium
Identify L
visceral pleura
Innermost membrane of the pleura, attached to the lung
parietal pleura
outermost layer of the serous membrane around the lungs attached to thoracic wall
pleural fluid
fluid between layers reduces friction AND keeps lung partially inflated at all times
1. The diaphragm moves down and the external intercostals move up and out

2. Lung volume increases, so pressure in the lungs decreases

3. Air flows in, down its pressure gradient
What happens to the muscles in the body upon inhalation (inspiration)?
1. Normally is passive (muscle contraction not involved)

2. Forceful expiration uses abdominal muscles, internal intercostals, which squeeze lungs in

3. Air flows out (pressure is now higher in the lungs than outside the body)
What happens to the muscles in the body upon exhalation (expiration)?
External Intercostals
Internal Intercostals
Diaphram
Abdominal muscles
Identify D
External intercostals
Identify A
Diaphragm
Identify B
Internal intercostals
Identify C
eupnea
normal, "quiet breathing"

Expansion of the lungs stretches their elastic fibers. In addition, elevation of the rib cage stretches opposing skeletal muscles and elastic fibers in the connective tissues of the body wall. When the inspiratory muscles relaxes, these elastic structures contract, returning the diaphragm or rib cage or both to their original position.
diaphragmatic breathing
"deep breathing"

Contraction of the diaphragm provides the necessary change in thoracic volume. Air is drawn into the lungs as the diaphragm contracts, and exhalation occurs when the diaphragm relaxes. Used during anxiety attacks.
costal breathing
"shallow breathing"

the thoracic volume changes because the rib cage changes shape. Inhalation occurs when contraction of the external intercostal muscles elevates the ribs and enlarges the thoracic cavity. Exhalation occurs when these muscles relax. Occurs during pregnancy
hyperpnea
"forced breathing"

Commonly associated with exertion, is breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest
Lung cancer
Statistical and experimental evidence has shown that 85-90 percent of all of this type of cancer are te direct result of cigarette smoking.

Smoking changes the quality of the inspired air makig it drier and contaminated with several carcinogenic compounds and particulate matter. The combination overloads the respiratory defenses and damages the epithelial cells througout the respiratory system.
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
A group of disorders that restrict airflow and reduce aveolar ventilation.
asthma
Unusually sensitive and irritable bronchi and bronchioles respond to irritants by constricting (bronchospasm). Drug reactions, air pollution, chronic respiratory infections, exercise and emotional stress can aggravate this condition in sensitive individuals.

Brochodilators (drugs that relax bronchial smooth muscles) can be used to dialate the repiratory passageways.
bronchitis
An inflammation and swelling of the bronchial lining, leading to overproduction of mucus secretion.
emphysema
is a chronic progressive condition characterized by shortness of breath and an inability to tolerate physical exertion. The underlying problem is the destruction of respiratory exchange surfaces; respiratory bronchioles and alveoli are functionally eliminated. The alveoli gradually expand and associated capillaries deteriorate leaving large nonfunctional cavities in the lungs where gas exchange isseverely decreased or eliminated.
1. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS)
2. Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
What are two types of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS)
Type II pneumocyte cells are found among the lining cells of the alveoli. These cells begin producing surfactant at the end of the sixth fetal month. By the eight month, surfacant has risen to the level required for normal respiratory function.

This is a condition that develops when surfactant production fails to reach normal levels. The alveoli collapse during exhalation, compelling extra force to be used during inhallation in order to reopen the alveoli on the next breath.. When the individual becomes weaker, the respiratory movements become progressively weaker, eventaully, the alveoli fail to expand and gas exchange ceases.
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
Surfactant abnormalities that develop in adults as a result of severe respiratory infections or pulmonary injuries. Alveolar collapse follows.