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Part of the muscle attached to the immovable or less movable bone


Part attached to the movable bone; insertion moves towards the origin


Decrease angle of a joint (hinge joint-knee and elbow)


Increase angle of a joint (straighten knee or elbow)


Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis (ball&socket joints-shaking head "no")


Moving limb away from midline


Moving a limb toward the midline


Proximal end of a limb is stationary, distal end moves in a circle combination of a flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction


Lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the skin

Plantar flexion

depressing the toes (pointing the foot)


Turn the sole medially


Turn the sole laterally


Forearm rotates laterally so palm faces anteriorly; radius and ulna are parallel


Forearm rotates medially so palm faces posteriorly; radius and ulna form an X


Movement of thumb when touching tips of other fingers on same hand

Prime mover

Muscle that has the major responsibility for causing a particular movement


Muscles that oppose or reverse a movement


Help prime movers by producing the same movements


Hold a bone still or stabilize the origin of a prime mover so all the tension can be used to move the insertion bone; eg. postural muscles that stabilize the vertebrae

Direction of the muscle fibers

Usually a reference to midline or long axis of a limb (rectus, oblique, transverse)

Relative size of the muscle

Maximus, minimus, longus, medius, brevis

Location of the muscle

Named for bone associated with the muscle (temporalis = temporal bone)

Number of origins

Biceps brachii, triceps brachii

Location of muscle's origin and insertion

Sternocleidomastoid (originates on sternum and clavicle, inserts on mastoid process of temporal bone)

Shape of the muscle

Deltoid means triangular

Action of the muscle

Flexor, extensor, adductor


concentric circles around the outside body opening (sphincters -eye & mouth)


Fascicles converge to single tendon (pectoralis major)


Length of fascicle runs parallel to long axis of muscle


Spindle-shaped muscle with expanded belly (biceps brachii)


Short fascicles attach obliquely to central tendon (uni-, bi-, or multi-)

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