117 terms

Chapter Review Questions Bio 111 Test One

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CHON (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen)
About 20-25% of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
Iodine
Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Which of the following is a trace element that is required by humans and other vertebrates?
Iron
Trace elements are those required by an organism in only minute quantities. Which of the following is a trace element that is required by all organisms?
2
The innermost electron shell of an atom can hold up to _____ electrons.
E
Which of these relationships is true of an uncharged atom?

A. The atomic mass is equal to the number of electrons.

B. The number of electrons is equal to the number of neutrons.

C. The number of neutrons is equal to the number of protons.

D. The atomic mass is equal to the atomic number.

E. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.
Electrons in the outtermost shell
What determines the types of chemical reactions that an atom participates in?
6
What is the atomic number of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
C
Which of these refers to atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic masses?

A. These atoms are isomers.

B. These atoms have different numbers of electrons.

C. These atoms are isotopes.
These atoms are different elements.

D. These atoms have different numbers of protons.
10
Fluorine's atomic number is 9 and its atomic mass is 19. How many neutrons does fluorine have?
5
An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many protons does boron have?
Silicon (valance electrons is 4)
If life arose on a planet where carbon is absent, which element might fill the role of carbon?
6
How many electrons does an atom of sulfur have in its valence shell?
17
How many neutrons are present in the nucleus of a phosphorus-32 (32P) atom 31P5
Protons (in an atom)

Changing the number of protons in an atom occurs only in nuclear reactions, not chemical reactions
Changing the number of _____ would change an atom into an atom of a different element.
Unique number of protons
Which of the following is primarily responsible for the unique chemical properties of each element?
Protons + Neutons
From the atomic mass, one can deduce the number of ________ in each atom of an element
Electrons in Valence Shelll
In what way are elements in the same column of the periodic table the same?
Two more neutrons than carbon-12.
One difference between carbon-12 ( 126C) and carbon-14 ( 146C) is that carbon-14 has
C
A covalent chemical bond is one in which

A. electrons are removed from one atom and transferred to another atom so that the two atoms
become oppositely charged.

B. protons and neutrons are shared by two atoms so as to satisfy the requirements of both atoms.

C. outer-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to occupy the outer electron shells of both
atoms

D. outer-shell electrons of one atom are transferred to fill the inner electron shell of another
atom

E. an electron from a full outer electron shell of one atom is shared so as to occupy the outer
electron shell of both atoms.
Polar covalent bond
What results from an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms?
A
A covalent bond is likely to be polar when

A. one of the atoms sharing electrons is much more
electronegative than the other atom.

B. the two atoms sharing electrons are equally electronegative.

C. oxygen is one of the two atoms sharing electrons.

D. the two atoms sharing electrons are the same element.

E.the two atoms sharing electrons are different elements.
D
An ionic bond is formed by

A.transfer of a proton from one atom to another.

B. sharing of a pair of protons between two atoms.

C. sharing of a single electron between two atoms.

D.transfer of an electron from one atom to another.

E. sharing of a pair of electrons between two atoms.
Covalent bond
Which bond or interaction would be most difficult to disrupt when compounds are put into water?
D
Which of the following would be regarded as compounds?

A. H2O and O2

B. H2O, O2, and CH4

C. CH4 and O2, but not H2O

D. H2O and CH4, but not O2

E. O2 and CH4
Polar covalent bonds
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
Hydrogen Bond
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
C
If a salamander clings to surfaces through hydrogen bonds, it would have the most difficulty clinging to which of the following surfaces?


A. a surface coated with a thin film of ammonia (NH3)

B. a surface coated with a thin film of water

C. a surface coated with a thin film of vinegar (acetic acid)

D. a surface coated with a thin film of vegetable oil
A
Which of the following takes place as an ice cube cools a drink?


A.Kinetic energy in the drink decreases.

B.Evaporation of the water in the drink increases.

C.Molecular collisions in the drink increase.

D.The specific heat of the water in the drink decreases.

E. A calorie of heat energy is transferred from the ice to the water of the drink.
Hydrogen Bonds
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
pH 2
What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion (OH-) concentration of 10-12 M?
gastric juice at pH 2
Which of the following solutions would require the greatest amount of base to be added to bring the solution to neutral pH?
10^-8 M
What is the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a solution of pH 8?
C
If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the

A .concentration of H+ is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.

B. concentration of OH- is one-hundredth (0.01×) what it was at pH 5.

C. concentration of OH- is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5.

D. concentration of H+ is twice (2×) what it was at pH 5.
C
If the cytoplasm of a cell is at pH 7, and the mitochondrial matrix is at pH 8, this means that

A. the mitochondrial matrix is more acidic than the cytoplasm.

B. the concentration of H+ ions in the cytoplasm is 7/8 the concentration in the mitochondrial matrix.

C. the concentration of H+ ions is tenfold higher in the cytoplasm than in the mitochondrial matrix.

D. the concentration of H+ ions is tenfold higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytoplasm.

E. the concentration of H+ ions in the cytoplasm is 8/7 the concentration in the mitochondrial matrix.
Population
All of the individuals of the same species living within a specified area is known as a
chemical engergy
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging matter and energy. For example, plant chloroplasts convert the energy of sunlight to
Light Engery
The primary source of energy for producers in an ecosystem is
Biosphere
All of the living things on Earth along with all of the places where life exists is known as
Ecosystem
All of the living things in a particular area along with all of the nonliving aspects of the environment with which organisms interact is known as
community (biological)
All of the organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem are known as
Archaea
Which of the following types of cells lack a nucleus?
light → chemical → heat
Which of the following correctly describes the forms by which energy flows through an ecosystem from entry to exit?
50%
Burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Approximately what proportion of this CO2 remains in the atmosphere, contributing to the trapping of heat close to the Earth's surface?
Organells
Membrane-enclosed components of cells that carry out specialized functions are
C
Which of the following represents the correct hierarchy of biological organization from large-scale to smaller scale?

A. communities → populations → organisms → ecosystems → biosphere

B. biosphere → communities → populations → ecosystems → organisms

C. biosphere → ecosystems → communities → populations → organisms

D. biosphere → ecosystems → populations→ communities → organisms

E. ecosystems → biosphere → communities → populations → organisms
Eukarya
Which taxonomic domain includes multicellular photosynthetic organisms?
D
Competition is central to the theory of natural selection. Why does competition occur?

A. Males must defend their territories.

B. Organisms are naturally antagonistic.

C. Females must choose among possible mates.

D. Organisms typically produce too many offspring and resources are limited.

E. All of the above are correct.
D
Which of the following is an example of "unity in diversity"?

A. All organisms, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes, use essentially the same genetic code.

B. The forelimbs of all mammals have the same basic structure, modified for different environments.

C. The structure of DNA is the same in all organisms.

D. All of the above are correct.
bateria and archaea
Living things are divided into three different domains. Which of these domains are classified as prokaryotes?
Archaea
A single-celled organism isolated from a deep-sea, hot thermal vent was found to have a cell wall but lacked a nucleus. This organism is most likely a member of which of the following domains?
universal genetic code
Strong evidence in support of the common ancestry of all life comes from
A
Charles Darwin proposed that "descent with modification" resulted when organisms of a particular species become adapted to their environment because they possess

A. heritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.

B. nonheritable traits that enhance survival and decrease their reproductive success in the local environment.

C. nonheritable traits that enhance their survival and reproductive success in the local environment.

D. heritable traits that enhance their survival and decrease their reproductive success in the local environment.
A
Which of these individuals is likely to be most successful in an evolutionary sense?

A. an organism that dies after five days of life but leaves 10 offspring, all of whom survive to reproduce

B. a male who mates with 20 females and fathers one offspring
a female who mates with 20 males and produces one offspring that lives to reproduce

C. a reproductively sterile individual who never falls ill

D. an organism that lives 100 years and leaves two offspring, both of whom survive to reproduce
natural selection
Over time, the lineage that led to modern whales shows a change from four-limbed land animals to aquatic animals with two limbs that function as flippers. This change is best explained by
Help propose the process of evolution
Which of the following was Charles Darwin's most significant original contribution to understanding both the unity and diversity of life?
D
Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of fungi?

A. producing sugars by photosynthesis

B. obtaining nutrients by ingesting other organisms

C. living in extreme environments like boiling hot springs

D. obtaining nutrients by absorbing them from the environment
B
Darwin's finches, collected from the Galápagos Islands, illustrate which of the following?

A. the accuracy of the fossil record

B. descent with modification

C. mutation frequency

D. ancestors from different regions
gradually decline
Imagine there is a species-specific fishing regulation that mandates only adult fish of this species that are 75 cm or longer may be kept and shorter fish must be released. Based on your knowledge of natural selection, you would predict that the average length of the adult fish population will
must be testable and falsifiable
In order for a hypothesis to be used in science, which of the following must be true?
B
Which of the following is true of a scientific theory?

A.It is a method or device that applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose.

B.It generates testable hypotheses, is supported by a large body of evidence, and is broad in scope.

C. It is formulated by many scientists over drinks at a convention.

D. It must demonstrate the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups.

E. It is only accepted after the person who formulated it has died.
Cell
The actions of an organism are based on _____ activities.
Population
A group of organisms of a species living together in an environment is referred to as
B
What is the correct order (from small to large) in a living cell or an organism?

A. cells, organelles, organ system, community, ecosystems

B. molecules, organism, population, communities, biosphere

C. molecules, cells, tissues, ecosystems, communities

D. organelles, cells, population, biosphere, ecosystems E.cells, organs, population, ecosystems, communities
Compound
A group of different elements arranged in a set ratio is referred as a(an)
E
A DNA molecule is made up of deoxyribose sugar, phosphate (a functional group), and

A. adenine
B. cytosine
C. guanine
D. thymine
E. all of these
Genome
The entire set of genetic information in a cell or an organism is referred as a
A
Like jackrabbits, elephants have many blood vessels in their ears that help them cool their bodies by radiating heat. Which of the following statements about this radiated energy is accurate?

A. The original source of the energy was the sun.

B. The energy will be recycled through the ecosystem.

C. The radiated energy will be trapped by predators of the elephants.

D. More energy is radiated in cold conditions than in hot conditions.

E. More energy is radiated at night than during the day.
E
The idea that form and function are related is not exemplified by which of the following examples?

A. Cells in the intestinal lining of vertebrates have many small projections that increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients.

B.Plants that live in dry areas have large roots for absorbing water.

C.Seeds that are dispersed by wind are very light.

D. Fish that swim rapidly have bodies that are streamlined.

Enone of the above
B
Which of the following kingdoms comprises mostly unicellular eukaryotes?

A.Monera
B.Protista
C.Fungi
D.Plantae
E.Animalia
A
Which of the following is an activity that would not reflect the practice of science?

A. Science is typically performed alone in the lab.

B. Data are typically collected by teams of students and experienced researchers.

C. Scientists typically reexamine conclusions or repeat experiments from other large, famous labs.

D. Scientists who work in forests studying ecology often collaborate closely with geneticists who work only in the lab.

E. The practice of science results in a discovery that lends new insight, and technology involves how this new insight will be applied to develop a new drug.
Formic Acid
Wood ants shoot ________________ as their defense mechanism:
A
Based on the periodic table shown here, which elements will most likely form an Ionic bond?

A.Na and Cl
B.C and O
C.N and O
D.Si and Cl
E.all of the above
E
Based on the periodic table shown here, which elements will most likely form a covalent bond?

A.Na and Cl
B.C and O
C.N and O
D.Si and Cl
E.H and H
C
What do elements with atomic numbers 6, 14, and 22 have in common?

A.same number of electrons

B.same atomic mass

C.same valence and will form the same number of covalent bonds

D.all of the above

E.none of the above.
van der Waals and Hydrogen Bond
The gecko can climb smooth walls due to one type of bond or interaction, while a spider can walk on water due to a different kind. Identify each type of bond.
Hydrogen Bonds
Water has special properties, including high cohesion, high surface tension, and the ability to absorb large amounts of heat. What kind of bond between water molecules gives water these special properties?
B
Water has an unusually high specific heat. This is directly related to which of the following?

A. At its boiling point, water changes from liquid to vapor.

B. More heat is required to raise the temperature of water.

C. Ice floats in liquid water.

D. Salt water freezes at a lower temperature than pure water.

E. Floating ice can insulate bodies of water.
E
Temperatures depend on local geographic conditions. Why is the temperature much cooler in Los Angeles than in San Bernardino?

A. The cool ocean water buffers temperatures by cooling winds moving inland.

B. The high specific heat of water helps keep ocean water cooler than land.

C. Los Angeles is closer to the ocean than San Bernardino.

D. A and B

E. A-C
E
Which is a compound?

A. Gold

B. Nitrogen

C. Carbon

D. Phosphorus

E. none of the above
E
You are asked whether a sample came from a livingthing. Chemical analysis shows that it consists mostlyof calcium and sulfur, so you say that

A. it did, since living things contain calcium and sulfur.

B. it did not, since living things contain calcium, but not sulfur.

C. it did, since living things usually contain mostly phosphorus.

D. it did not, since sulfur is toxic.

E. it did not, since living things contain more carbon and oxygen than most other elements.
D
If you see radioactive isotopes in a laboratory that deals with biological samples, what could you be sureis not the reason for their presence?

A.medical imaging

B.tracing movements in cells

C.dating fossils

D.disinfecting wounds

E.B and C
Paper
Complete the analogy: covalent bonds are to ionic bonds as a wooden board is to
Reactants, reactant, Product
The chemicals on the left are ______, the arrow shows the ______, and the chemical on the right is the _______.
Cohesion and Adhesion
Which properties of water are most important for the movement of water up the tree?
Reduce temperature
If you observed an extraterrestrial organism that was mostly composed of water, and you saw that it gradually lost water during warmer weather, you would guess that the function of the water loss was to
low density when frozen
If you were a fish in Minnesota, for which property of water would you be most grateful?
Hydrogen Bonds
Water becomes less dense when it freezes due to
Membranes
Imagine that you are examining the structure of an extraterrestrial organism's cells. You separate various components, finding one that mixes poorly with water. This is probably from the organism's
Hydrogen
Most organic compounds contain carbon and
Carbon
The large diversity of shapes of biological molecules is possible because of the extensive presence of _____ in the molecules.
C
Which of the following is a hydrocarbon?


A. C6H12O6

B. CO2

C. C3H8

D. CCl2F2

E. H2CO3
A
Variations in the reactive properties of different organic molecules are most closely associated with

A. the presence or absence of functional groups

B. the orientation of the carbon skeleton, as either ringed or linear

C. the number of carbon atoms composing the molecule's skeleton

D. the presence or absence of double bonds
Isomers
Molecules that have the same chemical formula (same numbers of each atom) but different three-dimensional shapes are called __________.
They differ in their spatial arrangement around inflexible double bonds.
Which of the following best describes cis-trans isomers?
Tetrahedron
When carbon forms single covalent bonds with four other atoms, the atoms joined to the carbon form a
Plane
When two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, the atoms joined to the carbons form a
Covalent bond
A carbon atom is most likely to form which of the following bonds with other atoms?
Dehydration
What is another name for a condensation reaction?
Hydrolysis
What is the name of the process during which a bond between two monomers is broken?
Hydrolysis
What is the name of the process during which a bond between two monomers is broken?
proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, and lipids
The four main categories of large biological molecules present in living systems are
Dehydration reactions
What is a common chemical reaction mechanism by which cells make polymers from monomers?
9
How many molecules of water are needed to completely hydrolyze a polysaccharide that is 10 monomers long?
Polymers of Glucose
Which of the following is true of both starch and cellulose?
A
Humans can digest starch but not cellulose because

A. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the α glycosidic linkages of starch but not the β glycosidic linkages of cellulose.

B. humans harbor starch-digesting bacteria in the digestive tract, but not cellulose-digesting bacteria.

C. the monomer of starch is glucose, whereas the monomer of cellulose is glucose modified by the addition of a nitrogen-containing group.

D. humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the β glycosidic linkages of starch but not the α glycosidic linkages of cellulose.
A
Polysaccharides, triacylglycerols, and proteins are similar in that they


A. are synthesized from subunits by dehydration reactions.

B. are synthesized through the formation of peptide bonds between monomers.

C. are broken down into their subunits by dehydration reactions.

D. are synthesized from monomers by hydrolysis reactions.
Cellulose
Plant cell walls consist mainly of _____.
Cellulose
On food packages, to what does the term insoluble fiber refer?
Dissacharide
Lactose, a sugar in milk, is composed of one glucose molecule joined by a glycosidic linkage to one galactose molecule. How is lactose classified?
B
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?

A. The majority of their bonds are polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.

B. The majority of their bonds are nonpolar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.

C. They are hydrophilic.

D. They exhibit considerable molecular complexity and diversity.
C
Which of the following statements regarding lipids is true?

A. A gram of lipid stores less energy than a gram of carbohydrate.

B. They generally contain nitrogen.

C. They are insoluble in water.

D. They are made from glycerol and amino acids.
A
Which of the following is true regarding saturated fatty acids?

A. They are the principal molecules in lard and butter.

B. They have double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acids.

C. They are the predominant fatty acid in corn oil.

D. They are usually produced by plants.

E. They are usually liquid at room temperature.
Glycogen
Which polysaccharide has the greatest number of branches?
E
If you were given a sample of a polysaccharide andtold that the only subunit was glucose, what wouldyou have?

A.glycogen

B.starch

C.cellulose

D.amylopectin

E.You cannot know from the information given.
Monosaccharides
From what are polysaccharides made of?
Fatty Acid
If you were asked to chose a lipid subunit, which would it be?
C
Which is not a lipid?
A. estrogen
B. cholesterol
C. glucose
D. triacylglyceride
E.trans fat