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Test 2 Review - American History 2610
Know significance and main characters of the following items/terms. Book used: The American Journey Concise Edition Volume 1.
Terms in this set (63)
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created the federal-court system. Established in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures. (~It constructed the judiciary clause of the Constitution- through the establishment of the Supreme Court and other lower federal courts.~)
Hamilton's economic plan (He was the Treasury Secretary)
Promotion of industry: commerce (trade) and industry were the keys to a strong nation. -federalist plan for Americans economic growth, which laid the groundwork for America's industrialization, High Tariffs: Tax on whiskey, protective tariff, national bank, pay off debts to individuals and states, taxes: increasing foreign trade, helping small businesses.) (~Argued that the US would never become a great power if they continued to import most of its manufactured goods- imported goods more expensive than domestic goods)
What exactly was Hamilton's economic plan, according to the textbook?
Hamilton was left with trying to fix the nation's falling apart finances. There was huge debt from the Revolution. Interest was going unpaid, debt was growing. By 1789- had reached $52 million. State gov debts- $25 million. We needed to do something now to save the government by putting it on a regular schedule for paying interest or the nation's public credit would be worthless. The gov would fall if it couldn't borrow. Claimed the gov should fund the full amount of national debt by exchanging the old debt for new government bonds bearing interest at about 4 percent. That the gov should take the remaining war debt of the state govs. *This would give the nations creditors an economic stake in the stability of the new nation and subordinate state financial interests to those of the central gov. Read more on pages 211-212.
(~Negotiated in 1794. Treaty with Britain. US made major concessions to avert a war over the British seizure of American ships. ~)(Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley.) pgs 217-218.
(~Flawed but acceptable. Granted Britain "most favored nation" status. Americans couldn't discriminate against British shipping and merchandise anymore.We had to pay in full the full pre-Revolutionary debts owed to the British) Treaty got ratified.
He established the American Navy. America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained." Believed in "innocent until proven guilty." In spite of these actions, he supported colonial independence. A Massachusetts delegate and attorney (defended British soldiers in the Boston Massacre trial.)and politician, strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups.Urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. Helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence.
American revolutionary patriot. President of the Continental Congress.Nicknamed "King of the Smugglers" ; Wealthy Massachusetts merchant in 1776. Important in persuading the American colonies to declare their independence from England. He was the ring leader in the plot to store gunpowder which resulted in the battles in Lexington and Concord. These battles began the American Revolution.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.(~Diplomatic incident, 1798, Americans were outraged by the demand of the French for a bribe as condition for negotiating with American diplomats.)lead to the Quasi War.-1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.],
Alien and Sedition Acts
(~Four acts (3 aimed at immigrants) passed by Congress in 1798- Restricted freedom of speech, and liberty of foreigners resident in the U.S.)
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law.
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
(The treaty describes the United States acquisition of more than 529,911,680 acres of territory from France in 1803. This greatly increased the size, power, and wealth of the U.S.)
(1803. Originally, was a meeting to discuss the purchase of the city of New Orleans as means of a port. Napolean was on the verge of war with England over previous treaty agreement, and had to forego plans of a vast colony in North America. Sold 828,000 sqaure miles at the cost of $15 million. Doubled the size of the United States at the time, and represents 23% of the current size of the country. )
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 -Lewis and Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explored the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast...
Traced the Mississippi River and found a route to the Pacific Ocean; called the "Corps of Discovery" ; increased American knowledge of the territory and gave the U.S. a claim to the Oregon territory along the coast
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review(~Supreme Court Decision that created the precedent of judicial review by ruling as unconstitutional part of the Judiciary Act off 1789) This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review, established concept of judicial review-power of the court to override the acts of an executive., first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional', The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution.
Wrote the pamphlet Common Sense.arguing for American independence from Britain, American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England)Supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809), convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain.
Olive Branch Petition
Colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain. they claimed they would be loyal to the Brit Gov if it addressed their grievances. (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Through this, the colonies were able to declare themselves independent, the delegates wanted to preserve their ties to Britain. -expressing loyalty to King George III- asked him to protect his American subjects from the military actions ordered by Parliament.
3rd President of the United States, He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. , A prominent statesman, Thomas Jefferson became George Washington's first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, Jefferson took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. He doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality, 1801-1809, Republican, split Federalist Party (Jay Treaty and Impressment hurt), against Aaron Burr, issue = Alien and Sedition Act and relation with France and England
Chief Justice of the supreme court : created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court, Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive.
a group of lawyers and merchants (extreme Federalists representing New England) who wanted to secede from the U.S. and form a Northern Confederacy b/c they thought northern states would have less power after the Louisiana Purchase. Led by Aaron Burr- Advocate for New England's secession from the U.S. New England's merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain., When Hamilton was offered a place in the plot to secede New England from the Union, he denied the offer. Consequently, the Essex Junto tried to vie support from Aaron Burr, who accepted the offer from the Junto. The first attempt to break off New England from the Union failed since it was unable to gain support from the major power brokers in the state of New York.
Treaty of Paris 1783
Ended the Revolutionary War. Recognized the independence of the American colonies. Granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. (~France regained its West Indian sugar islands-its most valuable colonial possessions- but lost the rest of its North American empire. Hostilities ended with this treaty-Great Britain now owned everything east of the Mississippi(from the Gulf of Mexico to Hudson's Bay.France and Spain on verge of financial collapse.
(~A supporter of the Constitution in favor of its ratification. -Supporters of Hamilton's program-Americans fully integrated into the market economy and in control of it. (Consisted of speculators, creditors, merchants, manufacturers, and commercial farmers)
They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812, The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Frederick von Steuben
., Who: German officer that helped make up for the shortage of leaders in America
What: Arrived at Valley Forge and trained American army into a "formidable fight force."
Results: Boosted troops moral and fighting skill., Prussian captain and talented drillmaster; volunteered his services to Washington to make regular soldiers out of the country bumpkins, brought into whip Washington's troops into fighting shape during their winter at Valley Forge
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
(~Resolves-adopted by the Stamp Act Congress at New York in 1765, asserting that the Stamp Act and other taxes imposed on the colonists without their consent, given through their colonial legislatures, were unconstitutional. ., created by delegates from nine colonies, set forth view of British power in colonies. Parliament didn't have right to tax colonists without their legislative consent and demanded repeal of Stamp and Sugar Acts, Adopted by the First Continental Congress, it promised obedience to the king, but denied parliament's right to tax the colonies.
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd that were protesting against British customs agents and the presence of British troops in Boston. The guards killed five colonists., The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
Battle of Lexington and Concord
., These two battles occurred on the same day. They were the first military conflicts of the war. Lexington was the first one, in which a shot suddenly rang out as minutemen were leaving the scene at Lexington. Fighting then occurred. The British won the brief fight. In the second battle, Concord, the British had gone onto Concord and, finding no arms, left to go back to Boston. On the bridge back, they met 300 minutemen. The British were forced to retreat, and the Americans claimed victory., 1775. British sent troops to Concord because they heard that colonists were gathering supplies. Paul Revere and William Dawes rode to warn colonists. 70 men gathered at Lexington 8 were killed 10 were wounded. Then, the countryside sprang to arms, and defeated British (first battle of the Revolutionary war)
Articles of Confederation
., This document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage, the articles established a national legislature, the continental congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
The Fort on the Hudson River Hudson River offered to the british by Benedict Arnold for money and a military commission, Fort designed to protect the Hudson River and Hudson River Valley from the British.
., Virginian, patriot, general, and 1st president.Commander of the Continental Army.. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence.
Washington's Farewell Address
., Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
., (1790) Alexander Hamilton's bill that took on the debts of states still in debt. This angered states that had already paid their debts off. Part of Hamilton's economic plan to create a powerful, national economic power. Only agreed to by moving the country's capital to the Potomac River (VA), (July 26, 1790) A bill that was passed and made U.S. responsible for state debts. The US gov't "assumed" all state debt. In return, the state capital would be located in the south
(3rd vice prez of united states),, Jefferson's first-term vice president; after being dropped from Jefferson's cabinet, he joined a group of extremist Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York; Member of the Republicans and President of the Senate during his Vice Presidency. He was defamed by the press, often by writings of Hamilton. Challenged Hamilton to a duel in 1804 and killed/shot him.
Bill of Rights
., The first 10 amendments to the Constitution, a statement of fundamental rights and privileges. , Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Continental Congress 1st and 2nd
., the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution; they issued the Declaration of Independence and framed Articles of Confederation. , 55 members; declared laws from England null and void; called for boycott on English goods; asked colonies to get serious about training militias
Battle of Trenton
., The Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner; the Americans won., On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Deleware River. The next morning, they suprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians., lasted less than 1 hour; Patriot forces captured more than 900 Hessians with just 3 American casualties; impressive victory boosted the Patriots' spirits, Washington outsmarted the British. Left fire burning and slipped behind British lines.
Battle of Saratoga
., Turning point of the American Revolution. Important b/c it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain., The Americans were victorious after 3 hours of fighting and France was impressed and signed the treaty., after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support us with money, troops, ships, etc.
Battle of Princeton
., A week after the Battle at Trenton, Washington left a few men to tend some campfire and left them going overnight where the British could see them and then snuck around behind and attacked, fooled the enemy again. He quietly marched his army to Princeton, where they suprised and beat a British force. New Jersey turned Patriot. This battle helped the American morale.,Jan 2, 1777; ; Patriots successfully drove back the British forces; Washington states, "Its a fine fox chase, my boys."
The government of the United States. A set of principles (guidelines) that describe the duties and powers of the government., Sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.Supreme Law of the Land.
*After the Chesapeake Affair, Thomas Jefferson was faced with a decision to make regarding the situation at hand. In the end, he chose an economic option: the Embargo Act of 1807.
., United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain.Federalist, 1st chief justice of the United States Supreme Court. American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; negotiated the Jay Treaty, Treaty of Paris w/Great Britain-ending the American Revolution. American statesman,governor, a advocate of a strong national government. sent to London to negotiate a treaty with Britain to maintain relations and avoid war. Demo-Reps were unhappy with this decision and thought he would betray his own country.
They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster, party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery., conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System.
., The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans, British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were taunting them with snowballs with rocks inside them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution., prime piece of anti-British propaganda.
three fifths Compromise
., the agreement by which the number of each state's representatives in Congress would be based on a count of all the free people plus three-fifths of the slaves, a compromise between northern and southern states that broke the deadlock over how slaves should be counted for purposes of representation. three fifths of slaves would be included in population totals, benefiting southern states that had the largest concentration of slaves by inflating their representation in the House of Representatives.
., this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays and 1200 farmers in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes, Bad weather, hard times, and high taxes left these farmers broke after the war. (sig.) This rebellion persuaded George Washington and the others that the Articles of Confederation needed to be changed. Some thought this rebellion as treason, but others, such as Thomas Jefferson said Shay's rebellion was "medicine necessary for the sound health of government."
., 1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.,'founding father,' Author of the Federalist Papers, architect of the first fiscal plan for the United States after the ratification of the Constitution. Most popular for losing a duel with Aaron Burr that eventually cost him his life.
., laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea. "Champagne Charley" Townshend persuaded Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts.The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause., He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
Sons of Liberty
., A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere., colonists, formed to keep colonies informed of events and organize protests against British (boycotts, riots, articles)
., The government service which is responsible for the administration of Customs law, the collection of related duties and taxes, and which has responsibility for the application of other laws and regulations relative to the importation of goods., the agency of the Treasury Department that enforces import tariffs
Writ of Assistance
., legal document that let a British customs officer inspect a ship's cargo without giving any reason for the search, court orders that allowed officials to make searches without saying for what they were searching
., restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver), prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
., (1764) British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors. Was the first act passed specifically to raise money in the colonies, rather than to regulate trade
., an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents, A means of raising revenue in the colonies, and was passed by Parliament. It stated that all legal documents, contracts, licenses, pamphlets, and newspapers must carry a stamp that is taxed. It angered the colonists greatly, and led to the creation of the Stamp Act Congress.
., American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. After the success of his Poor Richard's Almanac (1732-1757), he entered politics and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin negotiated French support for the colonists, signed the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the Constitution (1787-1789). His numerous scientific and practical innovations include the lightning rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove., printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics
., opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independent states- because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states.
Intolerable and Coercive Acts
series of harsh laws. intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. Intolerable Acts closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. -which closed it for the arrival of food and other goods too.(This was the British response to the Boston Tea Party-no shipping on the harbor) The Coercive Acts forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.The laws also removed certain rights like town meetings and the right to try royal officers accused of crimes in their colony.
Aaron Burr's duel.
Tried to overthrow the U.S.gov. Planned a conspiracy for New England and New York to secede from America. After Hamilton exposed the plot, Burr challenged him to a duel and killed him with just one shot .He was them arrested and tried for treason, but he was acquitted and fled to Europe.
Declaration of Independence
., the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies free from Great Britain,
Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.
An American Crisis
.a series of pamphlets written by Paine. The writings bolstered the morale of the American colonists, appealed to the English people's consideration of the war with America, clarified the issues at stake in the war and denounced the advocates of a negotiated peace.
Impact of Jefferson's presidency
The Federalist Papers
enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists., This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. Encouraged people to accept the Constitution.
Governing body for the states under the articles of confederation in which each state had one vote in the Congress. They had limited powers but could make coins, borrow money, negotiate and make treaties, settle conflicts, and ask for soldiers. But under no circumstance could they ask for money for troops
Boston Tea Party
., demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against increased tea prices.
. was the second wife of General Benedict Arnold.She played some role in the conspiracy with her husband.
.written by Thomas Paine.-claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation, criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
., He was placed in charge of British intelligence, Benedict Arnold's accomplice, Was tried and hanged for treason , English officer in their military; was caught with blue prints of West Point in his possession which came from Benedict Arnold
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