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AP Psychology: Chapter 12
The psychological specialty that documents the course of social, emotional, moral, and intellectul development over the life span.
Believed that experiencs provided by the environment during childhood have a profound and permanent effect.
Believed that children are capable of discovering how the world operates and how they should behave without instruction from adults.
Believed that motor skills developed in stages called maturation.
John B, Watson
Believed environment molds and shapes development.
Natural growth or change that unfolds in a fixed sequence relatively independent of the environment.
Stages of Prenatal Development
Germinal Stage: Zygots divides into cells.
Embryonic Stage: Embryo develops organs.
Fetal Stage:Organs start to function.
Drugs, Alcohol, Smoking
Harmful external substances that invade the womb.
Vision: 20/300= Bad.
Reflexes and Motor Skills: Grasping, Rooting, Sucking
Schema, accomadation, equilibrium, assimilation.
Infants discover aspects of the world through their sensory impression.
Children cannot yet manipulate and transform information in logical ways.
Children can understand logical principles that apply to concrete external objects.
Only adolescents and adults can think logically about abstractions, can speculate, and can consider what might or what ought to be.
Information Processing Approach
Describes cognitive activities in terms of how people takt in information, use it, and remember it.
The ability to recognize that the important properties of a substance remain constant despite changes in shape, length, or position.
Infant's individual style and frequency of expressing needs and emotions.
Monkey experiment. Monkeys want comfort more than food.
Secure Attachment: A bit anxious when left alone, happy to see her when mother returns.
Insecure Attachment: Avoidant, Ambivalent
Disorganized: Behavior is inconsistent, disturbed and disturbing.
Does Daycare Harm?
Daycare does not cause insecure attachment, but if it is poor quality, it can worsen home life.
Trust Versus Mistrust: Needs are met or the infants learn to mistrust the world.
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt: Children learn to exercise will.
Third to Fifth Year
Initiative Versus Guilt: Children learn to begin activities and enjoy accomplishments.
Sixth Year Through Puberty
Industry Versus Inferiority: Children develop industry and curiosity.
Identity Versus Role Confusion: See themselves as unique and interesting.
Intimacy Versus Isolation: Young people commit to another person.
Generativity Versus Stagnation: Have children or become self-centered.
Integrity Versus Despair: Enter a period of reflection or become sad about unaccomplished goals.
Firm, unsympathetic, value obedience from a child.
Children have freedom and little discipline.
Reason with child, encourage give and take.
Patterns of work, appearance and behavior that a society associates with being a male or female.
A quality among children to develop normally in spite of severs environmental risk factors.
Preconventional Moral Reasoning
Reasoning that is not based on the conventions or rules that guide social interactions in society.
Conventional Moral Reasoning
Reasoning that reflects the belief that morality consists of following rules and conventions.
Postconventional Moral Reasoning
Reasoning that reflects moral judgements based on personal standards.