the decoding of a mRNA message into a protein(peptide chain)
3 phases of translation
initiation, elongation, termination
each codon specifies a particular amino acid that is to be place in the polypeptide chain
AUG is called an "initiation codon", There are also 3 "stop" codons, they do not code for an amino acid.
is a start codon
3 major codons
UAA, UAG, UGA
TAC, AAA, TTT, CAG, AAC, TTC, CAT
AUG, UUU, AAA, GUc, UGG, AAg, GUA
UAC, AAA, UUU, CAG, AAC, UUC, CAU
met, phe, lys, val, leu, try, val
Translation of mature____________requires several, ______________, tRNA, and rRNA.
single-stranded, onti codon
The tRNA is a ___________ RNA molecule with an amino acid bound to one end and an ______________the other end.
nucleic acide, proteins
Changing 1 language to another:____________~Polypeptides____________
The anticodon is _____________to the corresponding mRNA codon.
made up of amino acids
Proteins differ in the number and sequence of ___________.
The sequence of amino acids gives each____________a unique shape and function.
The nature of the Genetic Code has a ______letter alphabet.
Code words are copied onto ___________.
______is smallest size for a DNA code word.
3 combinations on mRNA are called ___________.
Nucleic Acids & Protein Synthesis
DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
DNA & RNA
____________are directly responsible for making proteins.
Smooth colony(disease) was injected in mouse so mouse died.
What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
Rough colony was injected in mouse so mouse lived.
When heat smooth colony was injected mouse lived.
Injected the heat-killed type and the non-deadly rough type bacteria. The deadly bacteria "transformed" itself from the heated non-deadly type to the deadly type. Rat died.
THey found out DNA was the transforming facts.
Briefly describe how Aver, McCarty and McLeod further developed Griffiths experiment.
They put non-deadly rough type no heat-killed smooth type which put in different test types which had different enzymes that destroyed various organic molecules.
Explain the experiment and the results of the Hershey-Chase experiment, which is visualized below.
Equal amount of ademine and Thymine, and equal amounts of Guanine and Cytosine
According to Chargaff's rule, how do the bases of DNA pair with one another?
One is purine and pyrimidine fit in the latter
Why do they pair in this way.
What about DNA did this image reveal?
Watson and Crick
Who won the race to discover DNA's structure?
Phosphorous and deoxyribose four nucleotides, denine, thymine, guadanine and cytosine
What is the backbone of DNA made of?
manner in which cells store program that they pas form one generation the the next
process by which genetic material absorbed from the environment is added to or replaces part of bacterium's DNA
nucleic acid that stores & transmits genetic information from one generation to an organisms to the next by coding for the production of a cell's proteins.
unit of a nucleic acid that is made up a f-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
nitrogenous base in nucleic acids, belonging to the purines; base pairs with thymine or uracil
nitrogenous base in nucleic acids belonging to the purines; base pairs with cytosine
nitrogenous base is nucleic acids belonging to the pyrimidines; base pairs with guanine
nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA; base pairs with ademine
attraction between complementary nitrogenous bases that produce a force that holds the two strands of the DNA double helix together
process by which DNA is duplicated before a cell divides.
nucleic acid made up of a single chain of nucleotides that acts as a messenger between DNA and the ribosome and carries out the process by which proteins are made from amino acids.
nitrogenous base found on in RNA;base pairs with adenine
process by which a molecule of DNA is copied into a complementary strand of RNA.
of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus out to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
3 nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for an amino acid
process in which a message carried by messenger RNA is decoded into polypeptide chain(protein)
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosomes where the amino acids are joined together to form polypeptides
type of RNA that makes up the major part of the ribosomes
3-nucleotide sequence in transfer RNA that base pairs with a complementary sequence in messenger RNA during protein synthesis
measuring the acidity or alkalinity of a sub. numbered 1-14
a mixture in which small particle of sub. are disposed
any compound of carbon and another element are a radical
any compound that does not contain carbon
the bonding of two or more monomers to form a polymer. Chemical process that effects this bonding.
molecule that can be combined with others to form a polymer
a sub. usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without it being consumes in the process.
the material or sub on which an enzymes ads. A surface on which an organism grams is attached
the part of an enzyme at which catalysis of the substrate occurs.
any group of complex compounds found in all living cells and viruses, composed of purins, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, phosphoric acid.
any numerous natural and synthetic compounds of usually high molecular weight consisting
a very large molecule, such as a polymer or protein, consisting of many small structural units linked together
any several carbohydrates that can't be broken down simpler sugars by hydrolysis.
the process of removing water from a substance or compound
any class of carbohydrates consisting of a number of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds.
decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water such as the disassociation of a dissolved salt or the catlaytic conversion of starch to glucose.
any group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water, but soluble in nonpolar solvents organic solvents and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells
is a lipid found in the cell membranes of all animal tissues, and it is transported in the blood plasma of all animals.
are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide acid between the carbohydrate and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues
an organic compound containing group
the chemical bond formed between the carbohydrate group and amino groups of neighboring amino acids, constituting the primary linkage of all proteins structures.
any of numerous proteins or conjugated proteins produced by living organisms and functioning as biochemical catalyst.
any various compounds consisting of a nucleotide combined with a photosphere group and forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA
a polymeric constituent of all living cell and many viruses and are involved in protein synthesis and sometimes in the transmission of a genetic information
a nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA