Terms in this set (155)
1. Identify problem
2. Ask questions
3. Develop hypothesis
4. Collect data/experiment on data
5. Analyze results
What are the 5 steps of the scientific method?
Quantitative and qualitative
What are the two types of measurement important in science?
Subtract mass from atomic number
How do you find an element's number of neutrons?
How do you find an element's number of protons?
Once blood has been oxygenated, it travels through the pulmonary veins, through the left atrium, and then through the _____ before entering the left ventricle.
What is the name for any substance that stimulates the production of antibodies?
In which of the muscle types are the filaments arranged in a disorderly manner?
In the development of genetic traits, one gene must match to one _____ for the traits to develop correctly.
Which of the following can be found in the dorsal cavity of the body?
Which of the following best describes the careful ordering of molecules within solids that have a fixed shape?
Which of the following best describes the location of the trachea in relation to the esophagus?
What kind of bone type is embedded in tendons?
(CO2, water, and ATP are)
Which of the following is NOT a product of respiration?
Of the following, the blood vessel containing the LEAST-oxygenated blood is:
Which layer of the heart contains striated muscle fibers for contraction of the heart?
Which blood vessel carries oxygenated blood back to the heart?
Both occur in humans, other animals, and plants
How is meiosis similar to mitosis?
Which type of cell secretes antibodies?
The respiratory system
The esophagus is part of what system?
Vein, artery, nerve.
Beneath each rib, what structures are there and in what order?
FILTERS microorganisms and other foreign substances from the blood
What is the function of the spleen?
What type of protein interferes with virus production?
Which of the following structures has the lowest blood pressure?
Which of the heart chambers is the most muscular?
Which part of the brain interprets sensory information?
Cell differentiation in embryos
What is gastrulation?
The cell prepares for division by replicating its genetic and cytoplasmic material. Can be further divided into G1, S, and G2
The chromatin thickens into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate. Pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell and spindle fibers begin to form. The mitotic spindle, formed from cytoskeleton parts, moves chromosomes around within the cell.
The spindle moves to the center of the cell and chromosome pairs align along the center of the spindle membrane.
The pairs of chromosomes, called sisters, begin to pull apart and may bend. Grooves appear in the cell membrane.
The spindle disintegrates, the nuclear membranes reform, and the chromosomes revert to chromatin.
The physical splitting of the cell.
(Meiosis/mitosis) encourages genetic diversity.
2. Nasal cavity
The upper respiratory system contains the:
3. Bronchial tree
The lower respiratory system contains the:
Throat = ?
Voice box = ?
The walls of alveoli are only one cell thick, allowing for gas exchange with the ____ that surround them.
What reduces friction between surfaces when breathing?
Hyperventilation can ____ blood pH during ____.
Slowing breathing can ____ blood pH during ____.
Breathing is controlled by the ____.
Where is the flow of blood slowest?
Lymph vascular (supplementary system)
What system cleans up excess fluids and proteins and returns them to the circulatory system?
An adult human has about ___ qt of blood
What separates the atria and ventricles?
T/F: The heart has its own circulatory system with its own coronary arteries.
____ contraction FILLS the ventricles.
____ contraction EMPTIES the ventricles.
False. Heart is self-exciting
T/F: The heart requires external stimuli to control electric signals.
First diastole phase
During the ______, blood flows through the superior and inferior venae cavae. Blood flows PASSIVELY from atrium through open AV valve (tricuspid) into RIGHT ventricle.
Sinoatrial node. Signals carried by Purkinje fibers
What generates electrical signals in heart?
First systole phase
During the _____, the tricuspid valve closes, and the pulmonary semilunar valve opens. Blood is pumped out of the pulmonary arteries to the lungs.
Second diastole phase
Blood returning from the lungs fills the left atrium as part of the _____, where the SA node triggers the mitral valve to open which fills the left ventricle.
Second systole phase
During the _____, the mitral valve closes and the aortic semilunar valve opens. The left ventricle contracts, and blood is pumped out of the aorta to the rest of the body.
Carotid; subclavian; common iliac; renal
Blood exits the left ventricle into the aorta, which branches into the ___, ____, ____, and the ___ arteries.
Jugular; subclavian; common iliac; renal
Blood returns to the heart through the ___, ___, ___, and ____ veins, which empty into the superior and inferior venae cavae.
The ______ ligament connects the stomach to the spleen
The _____ ligament connects the kidney to the spleen.
What kind of muscle moves food by peristalsis?
What is the largest solid organ in the body and the largest gland?
4; right, left, quadrate, and caudate
The liver is made up of ___ lobes. Name them
Diaphragm; falciform, coronary, right triangular, left triangular, and round
The liver is secured to the _____ by five ligaments. Name them
Hepatic portal vein
Nutrient-rich blood is supplied to the liver by the _____.
The _____ supplies oxygen-rich blood to the liver.
Blood leaves the liver through _____.
The exocrine tissue of the pancreas secretes ____.
Hormones (such as insulin)
The endocrine tissue of the pancreas secretes ____.
Splenic, gastroduodenal, and superior mesenteric
Blood is supplied to the pancreas via the ___, ___, and ___ arteries.
Zymogens - produced by groups of exocrine cells called acini.
What are precursors of pancreatic enzymes called?
The pancreas also secretes ____ to neutralize stomach acid.
Sensory, motor, and interneurons
What are the 3 general functional types of neurons?
What part of a neuron receives impulses from sensory receptors or interneurons and transmit them toward the cell body?
The soma (cell body)
What part of a neuron contains its nucleus?
The axon - insulated by oligodendrocytes and the myelin sheath.
What part of a neuron transmits the impulses away from the cell body?
Nodes of Ranvier
On the myelin sheath, the gaps are known as:
Where does an axon terminate?
The brain and spinal cord
What are the 2 primary components of the CNS?
What 3 structures are included in the hindbrain?
What part of the brain integrates sensory signals and orchestrates the response to these signals?
What 3 structures are included in the forebrain?
Thin layer of gray matter covering the cerebrum
What lobe of the brain is responsible for short term and working memory and information processing as well as decision-making?
What lobe of the brain is responsible for sensory input as well as spatial positioning in the body?
What lobe of the brain is responsible for visual input, processing and output? (visual)
What lobes of the brain are responsible for all auditory input, processing, and output?
What part of the brain plays a role in processing and storing of implicit memories? (classical conditioning)
What are the 3 parts of the brain stem?
3. Ventral tegmentum
What are the 3 parts of the midbrain?
Which part of the brain has an important role in the ANS?
Peripheral nervous system - nerves and ganglia, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves
What nervous system is responsible for "fight or flight"?
What controls the ANS?
Where do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems belong?
What nervous system control s the five senses and voluntary (and involuntary) movement of skeletal muscle?
Motor - FROM the CNS
Efferent = ?
Sensory - TO the CNS
Afferent = ?
Voluntary and striated
Skeletal muscle is ____ and ____.
Involuntary and nonstriated
Are shorter and wider than skeletal.
Smooth muscle is ____ and ____.
Myofibrils (thick & thin); sarcomeres
Thick = myosin
Thin = actin ("act thin")
With skeletal muscle, each muscle fiber contains a bundle of ____, which are composed for multiple repeating contractile units celled ____.
Calcium ions - bind to myosin and actin
When an action potential reaches a muscle fiber, what is released?
Which layer of cells lying under the epidermis is constantly undergoing division?
Subcutaneous or hypodermis
What layer is not actually a part of the skin?
What kind of glands are sebaceous glands?
Either eccrine or apocrine
Eccrine = not connected to hair follicles
What kind of glands are sweat glands?
Monitors blood sugar level; helps in lipid and protein metabolism
Controls cardiac function; raises blood sugar and controls the size of blood vessels
Helps regulate metabolism and functions in growth and development
Regulates calcium levels in the blood.
Raises and lowers blood sugar; active in carbohydrate metabolism.
Plays a role in immune responses
Has an influence on daily biorhythms and sexual activity
Plays an important role in growth and development
1. Insulin-producing B-cells
2. Glucagon-producing a-cells
What kind of cells make up the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas?
1. Thyroxine (increase metabolism)
2. Triiodothyronine (increase metabolism)
3. Calcitonin (decrease metabolism)
What 3 hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland?
What directs the pituitary gland to release TSH?
Increases blood calcium by moving calcium from bone to blood
What is the role of the parathyroid hormone?
Glomerulus - that blood then moves to PCT
Where is blood filtered in the kidneys?
Distal convoluted tubule
Where are urea and drugs removed from the blood in the kidneys?
What kind of joint is most common, free & movable?
What kind of joint fills the spaces between bones and restricts movement?
What kind of joint has no cavity and has fibrous tissue connecting bones?
C, T, and U
What are your pyrimidine bases?
What are your purine bases?
Mendel's first Law of Segregation
There are two alleles and half of the total number of alleles are contributed by each parent organism.
Mendel's second Law of Independent Assortment
Traits are passed on randomly and are not influenced by other traits.
Protons + neutrons
Atomic mass = ?
2; 8; 18; 32
How many electrons can the KLMN shells hold respectively?
Polar bond (i.e. water)
Covalent bond with a separation of charge
a^3 (a= length of one side)
How do you find the volume of a cube?
l x w x h
How do you find the volume of a rectangular prism?
D = m/v
How do you find density?
P = a + b + c
Perimeter of triangle:
P = a + b + c + d
Perimeter of trapezoid:
C = 2(pi)r
Circumference (perimeter) of circle:
A = (1/2) bh
Area of a triangle:
A = s^2
Area of a square:
A = lw
Area of a rectangle:
A = bh
Area of a parallellogram:
A = (1/2)h (b1 + b2)
Area of a trapezoid:
A = (pi)r^2
Area of a circle:
A = 4(pi)r^2
Surface area of a sphere:
V = (4/3)(pi)r^3
Volume of a sphere:
V = s^3
Volume of a cube:
SA = 6s^2
Surface area of a cube:
SA = 2lw + 2hl + 2wh
Surface area of rectangular prism:
SA = 2(pi)r^2 + 2(pi)rh
Surface area of a cylinder:
V = (pi)r^2h
Volume of a cylinder: