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AP Euro Enlightenment Test Review
Terms in this set (77)
J. S. Bach
Now known as one of the greatest composers ever. During his life, he was known as a great organist. He lived during the Baroque period, standardized music theory and harmony as we know it today. (1685-1750). Wrote "Toccata and Fugue in D Minor" and "The Brandenburg Concerti"
G. F. Handel
German/English late-baroque composer. More cosmopolitan. Combines German, Italian, French, and English musical styles.
Anglican minister; created religious movement, Methodism; led to become missionary to the English people; apealed especialy to lower class; his Methodism gave lower and middle classes in English society a sense of purpose and comunity
physiognomy- claimed character could be read in facial features
F. A. Mesmer
Austrian physician who invented mesmerism (early stage of hypnosis). The Royal Academy of Sciences concluded that he had no evidence to support his theories.
American enlightenment figure who was a scientist and inventor
A philosophe who was also v. wealthy and gave grand entertainments at which his works were discussed. Books On the Mind and On Man - as host encouraged mingling of people and ideas.
French hostess of salon society. 1750 - 1775. Entertained artists and writers at dinner, sometimes helped them financially and introduced them to persons of influence in high society or in government. Also welcomed foreigners such as Horace Walpole and David Hume from England and Poniatowski from Poland.
A French writer known for his work, The Progress of the Human Mind. He identified humans will go through 10 stages of progress. He advocated liberal economy, free education, constitutionalism, equal rights for women and all races. Died in prison during French Revolution.
Mme. De Stael
Wrote widely read books in post rev. period. Critical of Napoleon Among her many ideas she deplored the subordination of women to men that the Revolution had done little to change. It was in these post-Revolutionary salons that much of the French liberalism of the 19th century was born.
(October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) a French Enlightenment figure best known for his work on the first encyclopedia.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government
(1712-1778) Believed that society threatened natural rights and freedoms. Wrote about society's corruption caused by the revival of sciences and art instead of it's improvement. He was sponsored by the wealthy and participated in salons but often felt uncomfortable and denounced them. Wrote "The Social Contract."
Frederick II of Prussia
An enlightened ruler who was a musician, patron of the arts, and friend to Voltaire, Frederick the Great was also the architect of Prussia's military success against another great monarch
(1737 - 1794) Author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, published in 1776, one of the first modern histories that attempted to explain the past as a guide to the future.
Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
(1738-1794) wrote 'On Crimes and Punishments', wanted laws to conform to rational laws of nature, wanted torture to be abolished
Mistress of Louis XV (the well-loved). She promoted art and encouraged writers. Encouraged the encyclopedia.
(1633-1677) Jewish philosopher and biblical scholar who was expelled by his synagogue for alleged atheism but left alone by the Dutch authorities; strove to reconcile religion with science and mathematics; works were scandalized because he seemed to equate God and nature
Louis XV's chancellor, decided that the political power of the parlements had to be curbed; engineered the overthrow of the Parlement of Paris- the most important of the high courts; magistrates sent into exile; new courts, whose membership was based on appointment instead of the sale of offices, took their place amid much public criticism
Sir William Petty
Conducted one of the earliest known attempts to measure national output as part of the British governments effort to assess the ability of the Irish to pay taxes to the crown.
"wealth of nations" advocated the idea of laissez faire; or government not involving themselves in the economy.
A physiocrat in France in the 1700s who wanted economic reform by removing feudal dues and streamlining government expenses. He was questioned by the nobility and was fired after 18 months.
Leader of the Physiocrats who thought that land was the source of all wealth and supported laissez-faire economies.
Louis XV of France
(r. 1715-1774) Successor of the Sun King, he initially lost the power of the absolute monarch to the Parlements- the ancient right to evaluate royal decrees publicly in writing before given the force of law. When heavy expenses of the War of Austrian Succession plunged France into a financial crisis, high taxes was met with firm opposition that the monarch could not suppress. Also led France into the seven years war.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
(France) Revived monarchy and country - reconciled Burgundians and Armagnacs (who had been fighting a civil war), gave influence to middle class in royal council, strengthened finances with taxes, created first national army; King of France; invaded Italy in 1494 - began foreign influence over Italy and city-states' loss in power
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
(r. 1780-1790) coregent with his mother (Maria Theresa) from 1765 until her death-controlled Catholic church closely; granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews; abolished serfdom; peasant labor to be converted into cash payments, country in turmoil at death
Austrian Chancellor who vowed to recover Silesia. He successfully formed a coalition that included France, Austria, and Russia. One consequence of this new alliance was the marraige of Marie Antoinette to the future Louis XVI of France
Of Austria - succeeded Leopold II. More inclined to give in to emigres. Resumed negotiations with Prussia. Had effect of pushing more in France towards the Girondists' perspective.
(reigned 1865-1909) King of Belgium who employed Henry Morton Stanley to help develop commercial ventures and establish a colony called the Congo Free State in the basin of the Congo River.
Those in the 18th century that felt that science, art, literature, and invention of their time had surpassed that of the Greeks and Romans. They no longer fear God or the Devil and felt that God was more the First Cause of the universe and less the father as described through the bible
A common conception for the Deity in Enlightenment thought; a Power that creates the universe, sets it in perfect motion, and then ceases to interfere in its operation
A Protestant revival movement in early-eighteenth-century Germany and Scandinavia that emphasized a warm and emotional religion, the priesthood of all believers, and the power of Christian rebirth in everyday affairs.
(1730s and 1740s) Religious movement characterized by emotional preaching (Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield). The first cultural movement to unite the Thirteen Colonies. Associated with the democratization of religion.
Facial expression, face, or what can be learned about a person by studying their face
The Freemasons consisted of men with Enlightenment views who met secretly in lodges and acted out mysterious rituals. Because of its secrecy and the violent offshoot, the Illuminati, suspicion of the Masons grew.
A violent offshoot of the Freemasons
lover of, or searcher for, wisdom or knowledge; person who regulates his or her life by the light of reason
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
Weak during the Enlightenment, but forced writers to be more vague in their arguments, at the risk of offending government figures.
Parlement of Paris
The parlements- 13 in France, were frontline defenders of liberty against royal despotism. The high court judges were the most important and influential in the Parlement of Paris. The Parlement of Paris challenged the basis of royal authority and stopped many repressive taxes.
Collection of works compiled during the Enlightenment; explained many aspects of society; compiled by Denis Diderot
The Spirit of Laws
This work by Montesquieu called for a separation of powers and heavily influenced the formation of American government
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Book written by Edward Gibbon which told that the growth of Christianity was the major reason for the collapse of Rome
Philosophical Letters on the English
This 1733 work by Voltaire brought England increasingly before the consciousness of the rest of Europe and popularized scientific ideas, especially the ideas of Locke, Bacon, and Newton
Elements of the Philosophy of Newton
1738-Most effectively popularized the thought of Isaac Newton across Europe; written by Voltaire.
Age of Louis XIV
By Voltaire - praised Louis XIV for splendor of art and literature in his reign. Shows lack in political liberties since Sun King was most absolute.
Origin of Inequality Among Men
Written by Rousseau, in 1753, stated that civilization was the source of much evil and a state of nature would be much better.
The Social Contract
Book by Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Argued that the right kind of political order could allow people to be truly moral and free; an individual can achieve freedom by giving up their freedom for the good of the community.
The Wealth of Nations
A book published by Adam Smith in 1776. Insisted that individual self-interest, even greed, was compatible with society's best interests. Claimed an "invisible hand" of supply and demand naturally brought both interests in line.
French phrase that literally means "leave to do", principle of non intervention in economic affairs.
A phrase coined by Adam Smith to describe the process that turns self-directed gain into social and economic benefits for all
19th-century western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
A group of economists who urged the French government to deregulate the grain trade and make the tax system more equitable to encourage agricultural productivity. Claimed guilds should be abolished in order to establish a free market and strongly influenced Adam Smith.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Religion which is innate (born within us) and comes from our human desire to find, reverence, and worship our Creator.
War of Austrian Succession
(1740-48)Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Seven Years War
(1756-1763 CE) Known also as the French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
apres moi le deluge
" After me the flood "- attributed to Louis XV of France on his deathbed (1715-1774). Recognition that things deteriorating in France but also seen as characterizing his personal attitude toward conditions in France.
An annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
The "twentieth" tax. This resembled an income tax, but French nobles rarely had to pay it in full.
This was the act passed by Charles VI that stated that Hapsburg possessions were never to be divided, in order to allow his daughter to be ruler
The greatest good for the greatest number
Utilitarian ethics, practiced by Frederick (II) the Great of Prussia
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796)-An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs.
A Cossack chieftain who claimed to be the legitimate tsar, launched a rebellion against tsarist authority and promised to abolish serfdom, taxation and military conscription.
a Russian peasant
Led a large peasant rebellion in 1670-1671 that scared the nobility into clamping down on the peasantry and giving more authority to the tsar.
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
The Eastern Question
In Western Europe this was the name given to the problem of what to do with the whole Polish-Turkish tract of land which stretched though Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine into Egypt - particularly as the Powers of Poland and Turkey decayed.
Catherine the Great's grand plan to replace Muslims throughout the world with Greek Orthodoxy
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