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42 terms

Bio II ch 4 voc

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anabolic reactions
larger molecules are synthacized to form smaller molecules
catabolic reactions
larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules
metabolic rate
rate at which the bodys bio chem builds up and breaks down molecules to store and release energy
dehydration synthesis
removing a molecule of water to join two smaller molecules
hydrolysis
where a molecule of water is inserted into a polymer which is split into two smaller molecules
enzymes
complex protines that function to lower the actavation energy of a reaction so it may begin and proceed more rapidly
coenzyme
nonprotine organic molecule required for the actavity of a particular enzyme
cofactor
smalle molecule or ion that must combine with an enzyme for actavity
substrate
substince upon wihc an enzyme reacts
oxidation
process by which oxygen combines with another chemical the removal of h or loss of electrons; opposite of reduction
metabolic pathway
consists of a series of enzyme, controlled reactions leading to the formation of a particular enzyme
cellular resparation
cellular process that relaeases energy from organic compounds
anerobic respiration
cellular resparation w/o 02
glycolysis
breakdown of glucose which occurs anaerobicly in cytosol
cytric acid cycle
series of chemical reactions that oxidises certin molecules, releasing energy: kreb cycle
beta oxidation
chemical process by which fatty acids are broken down into molecules of acetyl conenzyme A
acetyl conezyme A
intermediate compound produced during oxidation of carbohydrates and fats
pyruvic acid
intermediate product of carbohydrate oxidation
adenosine diphosphate
organic molecule that occurs when atp looses terminal phosphate
adenosine triphosphate
organic molecule that stores and releases energy for use in cellular process
ketone body
organic compound produced during fat catabolism
deamination
removing amino group from amino acids
urea
nonprotein nitrogenous sub resulting from protine metabolism
dipeptide
formed by bound amino acids
polypeptide
protien, many bound amino acids
vitamin
organic compound other than a carbohydrate, lipid, or protine required for normal metabolism, but that body cannot synthacize in normal ammounts
genetic code
correspondence betwene particular DNA neucleotides base triplets and specific amino acids
gene
portion of a DNA molecule that encodes information to synthesize a protein, a control sequence, mRNA, or tRNA
gene expression
cellular synthesis of protine coded for by piticular gene
transcription
manufacturing complamentrary for RNA from DNA
messenger RNA
transmits information for proteins amino acid sequence from cell nucleus to cytoplasm
codon
set of three neucleotides of a mRNA molecule corresponding to a particular amino acid
transcription
assembly of an amino acid chain according to the sequence of base triplets in a mRNA molecule
transfer RNA
RNa that correctly aligns amino acids to form protine
Anticodon
three contigous neucleotides of tRNA molecule that are complamentary to a specific mRNA
replication
reproduction of an exact copy of a DNA molecule which occurs during interphase
mutation
change in a gene
hyperplasia
uncontrolled cell division
dedifferentation
loss by CA cells of specalized structure and function of normal cells
invasiveness
CA cells break through normal boundries b/t cell types within some organs
angiogenesis
formation of blood vessels by CA cells to provide nutrition and remove waste
metastasis
tendency of CA cells to spread into other tissue